09.01.2021  Author: admin   Diy Wood Projects To Sell
Rabbit Proofing. Relocating the Head You'll probably find that the valve will still be slightly shrouded on the spark plug side even if you grind back cross dowel bolt 100mm data the gasket. Rails 40x40 RHS. Care needed when welding. It is also suggested xross if a high quality finish is required, a sample of the doel coated product be tried before attempting a full production run for the end user. Do-it-yourselfers could probably gain a bit by giving the ports a general cleanup though a flow bench is almost indispensible for this work.

Coil Floor Plates. Plate Thickness mm 2. Plate Thickness mm 5 5 6 6 8 10 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50 This plate is sometimes known as K Manganese Wear Resistant Steel. Structural Steel Plates. International Standard Comparisons. Australian AS This table indicates the approximate relationship between Australian grades and their International counterparts. Grades are shown in their increasing tensile strength order.

In the case of American ASTM Standards some grades are shown in increasing yield strength YS order, as their position in the hierarchy is different when based on the yield strength compared to tensile strength TS. For grades with suffix letters C, D on British, European and International Standards, B, C, on Japanese Standards and suffix numbers 2 and 3 on German Standards, the appropriate Australian alternative is the nearest L15 grade of the equivalent strength level i. High or Medium.

Grades readily available are highlighted in black. This graph is designed for customers to determine the nearest available Australian grade to an international specification. Boiler Plate. Tensile Strength MPa.

This table indicates the approximate relationship between Australian grades and their International counterparts 2. Grade equivalence shown is based on room temperature tensile properties only.

It may be possible to substitute readily available grades for international grades outside the designated band shown, provided relevant design factors are considered. These overseas grades may be available subject to enquiry.

Hot Rolled Sheet. Properties of steel base. Mechanical Properties. Longitudinal tensile. The size range listed is typical of the stocks at most outlets. Some outlets may carry coil Hot Rolled that can be sheared to sheet sizes. Minimum Quantities will apply. Thickness mm 1. Width mm Length mm Sheets per tonne. Thickness Width Length Sheets mm mm mm per tonne. Surface scale will 1. Thickness mm. Sheet Count Typical uses:- Washing machines, acoustic ceiling tiles, per tonne.

Some powdering of the coating may occur with severe deformation. The size range listed is typical of stocks at most outlets. Tolerances Widths are mill edge widths. This material should be used promptly within 6 months to avoid the possibility of storage related corrosion.

The product is suitable for moderate drawing applications and is suitable for lock seaming up to 1. Widths are mill edge widths. Material should be used promptly within 6 months to avoid a storage related phenomena of galvanized coatings termed intergranular corrosion.

Grades and Uses. Grade H34 Sheet A general purpose alloy, suitable for a range of sheet metal applications. Grade H32 Sheet Used in marine applications, sheet metal work and appliances. Corrosion resistance - Excellent Forming - Good Welding Argon - Excellent Grade H Plate Used in high strength structural applications, sheet and plate for welded marine applications and road transport vehicles.

Grade 0 5 Bar Plate Aluminium Treadplates. A wide variety of diverse applications. Step treads, shop floors, marine foot traffic, decorative bar fronts. Size mm x mm x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Some sections may not be available at all locations.

Grade A heat treatable, high strength alloy used as extrusions for sea, road and rail transport, mine skips and heavy duty containers. Corrosion resistance - Very good.

Anodising - Fair. Forming - Fair. Machining - Fair. Welding Argon - Very good. Grade A heat treatable alloy used in heavy duty structures where corrosion resistance is needed such as transport applications.

Aluminium is used extensively in transport applications due to the weight savings and high strength capability. Aluminium is approximately one third the mass of an equivalent steel section.

Not all sizes may be available at all times. Sizes may not be available at all locations. Please check with your steel outlet. Details correct at time of printing. Grade A strong alloy specially developed for high speed machining. Used for parts produced on repetition machines. Some items may come from a mill rolling. Not all sizes available ex stock.

Corrosion resistance - Poor. Anodising - Poor. Forming - Poor. Machining - Excellent. Welding Argon - Poor. Details courtesy of Capral Aluminium.

Alloys and Uses. Grade This is an austenitic, corrosion resistant steel with excellent strength, toughness, fabrication features and weld ability. Not a stocked item at all locations. Thicknesses over 6mm supplied in 6. Stainless Steel Angles. Supplied in 6. Stainless Steel Rounds. Size mmxmm Size Inch 4" 5" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" 20" 24" 30". Wall 10S Std. Wall 10S. Stainless Steel Polished - Ornamental Tubes.

Bends also available. Stainless Steel - Rolled Hollow Sections. Square Hollow Sections. Size mm x mm Some sections able to be polished to , or grit. The corners of polished sections are NOT polished.

The details above and those on the previous page, has been compiled from using various suppliers information. Mill minimums and mill rolling schedule may apply. Details subject to change without prior notice. High strength and good toughness. Good machinability. High strength plus and good toughness. Fatigue resistant. Can be flame hardened or nitrided. Low strength and high ductility. Can be carburised. Good machinability and welability. Low hardenability.

Medium strength and good ductility. Care needed when welding. Low strength and moderate ductility. Excellent machinability. Low stregth and high ductility. Reasonable machinability. Can be carburised Medium strength and good ductility. Corrosion resistent. Welding not recommended. General purpose grade with improved machinability. Corrosion higher than , lower than Readily welded. Marine grade with improved machinability. Corrosion resistance higher than or Excellent weldability.

Corrosion resistance similar to , lower than Extreme care needed when welding. Free machining grade with low corrosion resistance. Medium carbon grade. Corrosion resistance similar to Low nickel grade. S - Mpa. Medium tensile parts. Where extensive machining involved.

Pump and valve parts. High tensile parts. Martensitic age hardening grade. Good weldability. Corrosion resistance good. Lightly stressed parts. Medium to highly stressed parts. Highly stressed parts. Severely stressed parts. Rounds in a range 13mm - 36mm RE Flats in a range 45x6 - x Square Edge flats 32x5 - x Coil Spring and agricultural tynes.

Leaf Springs or chopping blades Chopping blades and wear strips. It should be noted that some imperial sizes may be available but not listed. Sizes up to mm OD not shown. Welded Floor Grating. How to read Welded Grating Product Coding. Load Bars. Load Bar Size From 20 x 3mm to 65 x 5 mm.

Step Tread Legend. T1 - Welded Fixing - no nosing. T2 - Bolted Fixing - no nosing. T3 - Welded Fixing - Floor plate nosing. T4 - Bolted Fixing - Floor plate nosing. T5 - Welded Fixing - abrasive nosing. T6 - Bolted Fixing - abrasive nosing. T7 - Welded Fixing - perforated nosing. T8 - Bolted Fixing - perforated nosing. Fibreglass Floor Grating. Fibreglass Floor Gratings. Photos are for illustration purposes.

Fibreglass Gating details. Type "I" uses isopthalic polyester resin and provides excellent corrosion resistance properties against a range of chemicals. Type "V" uses a vinyl ester resin base with superior corrosion resistance to acidic environments and moderate resistance to caustic and solvent applications.

Fibreglass Grating Stairs also available. Please check all sizes at placement of your order as some supplier measurements may vary. Alu-Tread extruded aluminium is a light weight flooring system which has a wide range of applications. Balltube Handrailing. Heavy Duty Stanchions are made from 40 NB When ordering a self closing gate, it is essential to nominate the direction of the swing.

Please check all sizes at placement of order. Perforated Metal Sheeting - Round Hole detail only shown. Key to Table. Pattern No. Pattern Dia. Pitch Open No. Available in Standard Sheet size. C4 Available mm coil. C3 Aluminium stock available in metric x mm. Fine Woven Meshes. These products may be available from the supplier, only.

They may not be a stock item at most steel outlets. Woven Wire Mesh sheets can be used in many architectural applications, balustrades, sun-shades, feature panels etc. Flooring panels may be fixed to supports with a spring clip ex supplier or alternatively welded directly to the supports.

Mesh Specification. Aperture mm 25 The weights per metre square are indicative only. Large Expanded Meshes. Nominal sheet size is x Conditions apply. The above products represent local stock holdings. Other specifications and materials available on request. Made to order lead times will occur. To estimate your number of sheets, divide the area in square metres m2 by Able to be carried on top of a ute - legally.

All details coutesy of To estimate the number of trench mesh sheets, divide the length of beam by 5. Lengths SAP per t Number SAP Code LIG x 25 Plain reinforcing bar Grade RN. Standard size 6mm ligatures for tying reinforcing bar or trench mesh.

Manufactured from plain round bar Gr RN. Standard size 10mm ligatures for tying reinforcing bar or trench mesh. SAP Search Description. Plastic Clipfast Spacers and Deck Chairs. Plastic Tipped Wire Chairs and Bases. Bar Size. Std Pack Mass-kg 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 Lengths can be custom cut to suit project requirements. Acts as permanent formwork with minimal propping. Length range is mm to Material Specifications. Excellent spanning capacities.

Installation of suspended services and ceilings without drilling into the concrete slab. Reliable interlocking mechanism provides horizontal lapping for faster installation. Bon-nut Heavy duty square nut to suspend ceilings or services. Glued to a paper strip that makes insertion easy. Lightweight bracket for rods to suspend ceilings or services other than fire sprinkler systems.

Load: kg. SAP Code - Plated. Ceiling Suspension Nut. Pressed metal threaded bracket to suspend ceilings or services. Thread: M6 Max. Plastic trim to cover gaps formed by ribs.

Stock length: mm. Polystyrene foam stops concrete and air from entering ends of ribs. Stock length: mm Required: mm per sheet of Bondek. A galvanized section that creates a permanent formwork at the slab edges cut, mitred and screwed on site.. Stock slab depths: , , mm others to special order.

Brackets from builders strapping. Fixed with self-drilling hex. Teks screws with drill points. No Known Code. Up to mm slabs. Grade R friction cut. DLFCD 20 Hot dipped galvanized round bar used to control movement in joints of concrete slabs. GRR friction cut. Friction cut. Description Photos for illustration. Sleeve acts as nail plate with nails already inserted ready for easy use. A highly efficient dowel system well suited for contraction joints. Dowel Cradle and Expansion Jointings.

Dimension x x x x x 10 x 10 x 10 x x Used in the formation of composite beams in cavity brick wall construction supporting both skins of brickwork. Hot Dipped Galvanized. All weights shown are approximate.

Used in the formation of composite beams in brick veneer construction. Reid Construction Systems. Reid Construction System. Inc, Couplers, Lock Nuts, Inserts. Tie Wires, Loop Ties and Tools. TWA1M 1. No Known Code 1. NIPP Tools used in steel fixing may change or be deleted over time. Please check.. SAP Number Stock Lengths. Design freedom. Pre-fabricated steel frames are precision engineered.

Fire and termite resistant. Will not warp or rot. No expensive tools needed. Other accessories available from each manufacturer. Not all accessories are able to be shown on this page. Some dimensions may differ from each manufacturer. Please check with your local outlet. Please check with your local Distribution outlet for your special punching requirements. Item in shaded area is classed as a pulin only.

Details as per BlueScope Lysaght publications. F 47 0. Please check. Roof and Wall Sheeting. Max recommended spacing of supports for normal conditions-mm. At the time of printing. Please note, other manufacturers sheet profiles may differ in dimensions. Most profiles are available in custom cut lengths. The maximum length for factory rolled product is dependant on transport legislation in your area. The above profile details outline basic design information which will assist selection for your design or installation.

We recommend that you access the full product brochures and manuals for complete design information. These brochures and the availability of profiles and finishes can be found on the website. The website is www. Accessories Available.

Max recommended spacing of supports for normal conditions - mm. Maximum length is mm - Longer lengths subject to manufacturers enquiry.

Add translucent sheeting to the roof or walls and brighten the interior of any building. Great for industrial buildings. All screws should have 32 mm Weatherlok Washers or refer to manufacturers specifications. Use similar screws as you would for metal claddings. Rainwater Accessories. A house is incomplete until the finishing accessories are added and waterproof the roof completed.

The following flashings are only a few that will complete a roof. Custom made flashings are also available but there could be length limitations. Check at placement of orders. Please note that Barge Roll, Apron Flashing. Some round downpipes are tapered to allow one end to slip inside the next. The above components are only but a few of the many items that can and may be needed to complete a roof.

Some builders will try to use PVC downpipes and while this is quiet acceptable, there is something calming and melodic about the water running down a metal downpipe.

The use of PVC pipe for downpipes is a personal preference. Details courtesy of BlueScope Lysaght. There are a number of suppliers who can supply a Pre-Painted steel fence and at reasonable prices.

The components for a fence is as the diagram below. It is only the infill sheets that alter the style or name of the fence. These may be supplied in , or mm high. All diagrams and photographs are for illustration purposes.

All components may be ordered seperately. A variation on the above styles is to add a lattice section of mm to the top of the fence. This may be referred to as Neetascreen Plus. While most of the fence styles may be installed as straight line, raked or steeped, the addition of the lattice section can only be applied to a straight or a stepped fence. The addition of the lattice section to a raked fence will not work.

Corrugated Culvert Pipe. Galvanized culvert pipe is manufactured in a range of sizes from mm to mm and in lengths to suit your needs. The 4 ply lock seam adds strength and rigidity to a versatile pipe with many uses in farm, mining and industrial applications. Road culverts. Stormwater drainage. Retention systems. Corrugations 75mm x 25mm deep. Culvert should be laid on a firm, well compacted granular bed mm deep in a trench mm wider than the pipe diameter.

Back fill with compacted material passing 75mm screen in mm layers. Minimum cover should be mm. Normal Dia O. Metric mm IMP. Joining Methods. Flanged using standard angle iron or table flanges. Butt weld and collar. Shouldered ends and couplings.

Grooved ends and couplings. Industrial Downpipes. Also available spiral welded industrial downpipes in Stainless, Hot Dipped Galvanized, Zincalume - plain or powder coated. Pioneer water tanks are available in a range of sizes and capacities suitable for many applications and uses, such as, rural, residential, commercial or industrial water storage.

XL01 2. For over two decades, BlueScope has supplied XL90 XL Check out the options to suit your needs. BlueScope Water Tanks provides water storage solutions to leading Australian and international organisations working in the agricultural, oil and gas, mining, utilities, humanitarian, education, local government and industrial sectors.

All our products meet the required Australian Standards and are independently verified by consulting engineers. Throughout Australia, Pioneer is widely recognized for providing cost effective, well engineered water storage tanks for the most essential, demanding operations. WaterPoint tanks incorporate the most advanced technology in tank lining, wall panelling and roof design to deliver the best performance and value for money.

For further information, please call Fencing Fittings and Post Caps. Alternatives are Timber Posts and Rails. Steel Pipe Posts and Rails. Square Steel Posts. Using Strainer Wires.

See illustration. Domestic Fence Panel Options. Size Range Fence Panels. Alternate names may be Banksia or Barra. Indicates Barra supply option. Powder Coated These wire fence panels are rolled over top and bottom. The fence panels shown may differ in each state. Swimming pool regulations vary greatly between states and the home owner should check with their local council before installing any style of fence panel so that it is compliant.

Corresponding gates are available to match the fence panels and longer than normal lead times may apply. These wire fence panels are also available in a powder coated finish.

Please check as colours may differ between suppliers. Please see fixing suggestions above. Gate hardware may also vary upon each application and regulation.

Please check with your council. Alternate Decorative Fencing Options. Similar style gates are also available. Most swimming pool barrier codes require gates to be self closing and self latching. A magna latch; as shown; may be a statutory or compulsive requirement.

Heights - - - mm Vertical Barsmm or 19mm O. While the ARC Fences range has been shown, some other manufacturers may have a similar panel but under another name. Sizes may vary between states. A typical fixing method is by using and "L" bracket or a tube bracket as shown.

With a modern and stylish look, it can be installed as a standalone fence or combined as an infill to brick or rendered concrete posts. More cost effective than powder-coated aluminium options. Provides privacy and timeless elegance to your home. Available in mm, mm, mm panel heights. Panel width — mm. Matching gate kits available. Security Fencing Options. The most popular option is the straight top security fence with three rows of barbed wires laced onto the top..

The design consists of a corner post 80NB , braced and intermediate straight posts of 40NB, all in galvanized finish. The intermediate posts may be crimped in three place at the top to accommodate the tying on of the barbed wires. Intermediate posts are placed at 2. Some outlets will carry galvanized pipes in 7.

For very large installations, it may be necessary to order special length galvanized pipes from the pipe mill to reduce or eliminate any waste. The chainwire used is 1. Barbed Wire. A stainer wire; doubled and twisted taut; may be used top and bottom and smaller tie wires to lace the chainwire to the intermediate posts and corner stainer posts. For some very high security areas, the security fence may be topped with a razor wire.

Prefabricated Security Fencing Options. All details are correct at the time of printing but details may change without prior notice. Through rail - Galvanized steel - Crimped and spear tops. Horizontal Rails 40 x 40 x 1. Vertical Pickets 25 x 25 x 1. ARC Fences. Other suppliers may use other Horizontal Rails 40 x 40 x 1.

Temporary Security Fencing Options. There are many variations of a temporary fence. Some are listed below. Temporary fencing to secure construction sites and private property Temporary fencing for residential housing sites Temporary fencing and crowd control barriers for major public events.

Temporary Fence Clamps. Temporary Fence Clamp Hinge. Wire Diameter 4. Steel Wire Fence Droppers. Spacings from Bottom in cms. Brown 3. Length cm. Colour Code Droppers. Green 4. Details courtesy of Double selvedge wires. Gabion Boxes are a suggested use. Some Uses Stucco Netting. Stucco Netting. Chicken Runs. Rabbit Proofing. Poultry Netting. Gabion Boxes. Light Fencing. Hinged Joint Fencing. Hinged Joint Fencing - Standard Galv - 2. Code of Product. Hinged Joint Fencing is sometimes referred to as Acreage Fencing.

Mesh Gate - "N" Stay Brace. Size Opening 10'0" 12'0" 14'0" 16'0". General Purpose Galvanized Meshes. Size of mesh 25 x 25 x 2. The sheets are of convenient sizes, making it easy to carry in a trailer, utility or station wagon. Do It Yourself projects around the house may include a stylish wine racks, a sturdy bird cages or a dog barriers.

Ideal for use in the garden. Galvanized sheets for industrial applications. SAP look up code "WM". Some weights may be an approximate only. Some Mesh sizes may also be available from a supplier in a bright finish. Cattle Management Accessories. Re-locatable as required and easy to assemble. Rails 40x40 RHS. Frames 40x40 RHS. Rails 53x35 Oval Section.

Manufactured from high strength steel. Re-locatable as required Lightweight for easy handling Easy to assemble One man handling Slide gates.

Light Duty Slide Gate. Rails Various steel products. Manufactured from high strength steel These products may have to be sourced from a fabricator. Designs may vary between states. Please check Picture for illustration only. Details of products used in construction may also vary. Standard design across all components. Pins used in construction of cattle runs With protective zinc coating. K40MSGB 2. Our most popular cost effective panel.

Ideal for both Cattle or Horses Gymkhanas As with most other panels, these are capped both top and bottom. Look for special pricing on these popular panels. A long lasting sturdy panels, suit harsh conditions.

Cost effective and easy to transport and erect anywhere. Withstand great pressure in forcing yards. Yard Designs and Benefits. Built strong for safety to stock and handlers — takes advantage of natural instincts. Manufactured to exact standards — reduced treatment and drafting times.

Minimises bruising and injury — no extruding posts. Can be expanded or layout changed anytime — extra high safety panels. Designed with the experience of commercial reality — easy to erect. Yard Layout Designs. Adjustable flank bar. Baulk Gate included. SAP Look up details. Calf Race. Front stopping gate.

Standard Features:5 simple removable components. Easy 2 person assembly. Sheeted sides to prevent leg capture.

Hardwood Timber Floor. Designed to suit all cattle yards. Savings on freight. The Deluxe ramp is a 4. Made in a unique pin-together style for ease of assembly and freight reducing purposes. Full length walkway with handrail - Hardwood floor with steel treads - Side access gate.

Sheeted sides to mm - Clever use of Cattle Rail sides. Adjustable for truck or trailer. Length mm, Height mm, Base width mm. This ramp is a 3 metre fixed height ramp with a steel floor; designed for smaller yard systems or basic loading and un-loading from truck height. Special features include a hardwood floor. Sheeted sides to mm, top section uses cattle rail..

Basic dimensions:- Length mm, Height mm, External base mm. Feeders and Cattleyard Options. Tombstone Style Feeder. Extention panels available Tombstone design to reduce spillage, sits level 2 Piece construction makes it easy to relocate Holds 6 ft round bales - Feeds up to 9 animals simultaneously Manufactured from hot dipped galvanised pipe Extension panels are available on request Pins chained, so you cannot lose them Light weight, easy to transport Grain Feeders.

Good weather protection ft Hay Rack. Easy fit bales of hay end on end Livestock can feed from both sides Livestock may feed when required Galvanized steel pipe and mesh construction Skid base allows for easy relocation Easily moved manually or by farm equipment Galvanized steel tray prevents drop outs Product may not be the same design in each state Double Round Bale Rack Feeder. Holds two round bales for double the feeding option Livestock can feed from both sides Galvanized steel pipe construction Skid base allows for easy relocation Galvanized steel tray prevents drop outs Designs may vary between states Please check with your local branch Creep Feeders.

Growing calves benefit from more than just their mother's milk. By providing a creep feeder, you can find your bottom line growing. Weaning weights are increased. Calves which have been creep fed usually suffer less setback at weaning. Calves with above average growth potential will respond better to creep feeding. Allow 75 to mm of feeder space per calf. Many different commercial creep feeds are available and can give excellent results. Light duty easy to handle.

Easy to transport Easy to erect Strong panels made of quality galvanised tube Ensures animals will remain quiet Minimises jumping. Horse Day Yards. Some stock sizes may be in 7. Please call your local branch to check the stock availability. The majority of RHS sizes used in a cattle yard construction would be 40 x 40 mm to 65 x 65mm.

The popular size is the x 42 mm while other sizes may be available. Some sizes however may require a minimum order requirement. The image is for illustration purpose only. Round Gal. These may be supplied in Galvabond and is the preferred option to cap both top and bottom of a cattle panel stile or post.

The other journals are then ground to suit the Holden rod and main bearings. Provided it's done properly it's quite durable. If you don't like the idea of a welded steel crank new cast units are also available in semi or fully finished form.

Slightly modified stock length rods can be used, usually with Ford pistons though others eg. Suburu can be used. A fair bit of work has to be done to make room for the longer crank throw; notches have to be ground into the sides of the crankcase, and the sump needs a bit of hammer work as well. Also the cylinder bottoms need to be relieved a little and the camshaft needs to have some flats ground into it for big-end clearance. The extra cubes would certainly improve the performance at lower speeds, and the little Holden has always had a capacity handicap when compared with similar straight sixes from Ford and Chrysler.

I tend to steer clear of oddball parts whenever possible, and a stroker crank would add a fair bit of expense. On top of this the rod ratio ends up being awful if you use stock rods and the camshaft relieving weakens it to the point that breakage is likely. But if the maximum possible torque from a low-revving naturally aspirated engine was the goal, I'd certainly consider it.

As it turns out, the maximum practical capacity for a highly tuned engine is not much more than cubes. The lack of big-end to camshaft clearance prevents increasing the stroke by much, and reducing the crankpin diameter would only exacerbate the crank flex.

Similarly, it's not practical to increase the bore size, even with sleeving. The existing cylinder walls are already borderline too-thin, and the close bore-spacing means that significant bore increases would leave very little head-gasket support between the bores as well as very little room between the outer walls.

In short, we're stuck with the small capacity and therefore must concentrate on making the engine live at the very high revs required to make good power. We'll look at cylinder heads more closely later, but generally speaking it's difficult to get much more than - hp from the twelve port heads, while the old nine port heads can be made to flow enough to make over hp. Despite this the twelve port head is often the best choice, especially for a street driven car, and at power levels within its limitations a 12 port with the right manifolding will outperform the 9 port because of its fatter torque curve.

Again, if it's for a registered car you may not have much choice. A track-only car can make use of a late blue or black block, complete with counterweighted crank and better rods. But if you want to avoid having to use emission controls you'll probably be stuck with an older HJ or earlier red block.

These can be fitted with the counterweighted cranks with a bit of work, and it's also fairly easy to adapt the later 12 port heads to these blocks. There is nothing special about the old HP blocks, and while the XU1 blocks allegedly are beefier good luck in finding a block or the money to buy one.

Keep in mind that some of these blocks are over 35 years old, and most have been rebored a couple of times. They are also likely to have a fair bit of corrosion in the water jackets, so you might have to check out quite a few before you find a good one. Pull out the water pump and knock out some of the welch plugs so you can get a good look in there. Finding a good or will be the hardest, many of these will already be bored too far to be used for high performance applications.

Cylinder wall thickness is an important consideration with these engines. For very high power levels bore wall stiffness can be marginal, so you need to find a block that will clean up with the smallest possible overbore - certainly no more than 40 thou if you plan to make much power.

A standard or very mild street engine could go 60 thou. This means they can be bored out to specs, but you could start off with the std bore size and have stiffer cylinder walls plus room for a couple of rebores. A blue engine is probably the ideal starting point for a high performance project - not only do you get the good rods and thicker cylinder walls, it also uses size main journals. Verify wall thickness yourself before committing too much time or money in any block.

Should you choose a red, blue or black block? The later blocks had some minor additional webbing and so may be stronger, and as just mentioned the blue has a lot to recommend it, but on the other hand there is a fair bit of anecdotal evidence to suggest the earlier blocks may be cast from better material. I haven't yet hardness tested any blocks, but it does seem that the old red blocks went longer between rebores. Until I had conclusive evidence though, I'd just use whatever is suitable and available.

For engines of not too much more than hp there is nothing special required, unless of course you plan on using a different type of crank. The age of these blocks dictate that you should give any block a good clean and check it out thoroughly for cracks or any other damage before you invest any time or money in it.

Keep an eye out for cracking around the head bolt holes which is quite common, though minor cracks here don't seem to cause any problems. A honing plate must be used for the final honing operation to ensure the bores are round when the head is fitted. Bore finish is quite important, and should match the rings requirements. Generally a grit stone will be best for chrome rings and a grit for moly or moly-plasma faced rings. It's generally accepted that an automatic machine can give a better, more consistent result than hand honing.

We touched on the importance of maintaining the maximum possible cylinder wall thickness earlier; trouble is it's getting hard to find blocks that haven't already been rebored several times, and anyway you could argue that a very high HP engine would benefit from walls stiffer than those in a virgin block.

This can be achieved through sleeving with high-strength thinwall sleeves. The success of such an operation though rests almost entirely on the person doing the machining. If the job is done properly, a sleeved engine will make more power, have more strength and last longer than a normal unsleeved block. The sleeve and block must be machined to very close tolerances, and the sleeve must press up against a step or shoulder to ensure a reliable seal with the head gasket.

It's not practical to use sleeving as a means to enlarge the bore; in order to maintain a reasonable thickness of material around the sleeve and in the sleeve itself you'll probably end up with a bore no bigger than standard and possibly a bit smaller. The improvement in wall stiffness will more than compensate for the smaller capacity, especially with very highly tuned engines.

Sleeving a high revving high output engine is a different matter altogether to sleeving something like a worn out tractor engine - you might have to talk to several engine machinists before you find one with the experience and competence to do it correctly.

Properly done though, there are definite strength and performance benefits to be had. The little Holden seems to be able to handle much higher power levels for shorts bursts quite well, and indeed there are some very high powered blown drag race engines around. But if you run the engine for prolonged periods at horsepower levels over the high s you will probably find the block will be quite susceptible to cracking and splitting, and while there are some things you can do to help there are definite limits to how much power can be made reliably.

Pushed hard, they will split horizontally right down the left hand side, the crack intersecting the welch plug holes. Very high rpms seem to be the main cause of the breakages, though builders of blown motors in may also have to choose between higher boost levels and block durability. The breakages seem to be more a result of vibrations and forces transferred through the block from the crank rather than simple overstressing.

It's therefore more productive to focus attention on the preparation and balancing of the rotating assembly than to try to strengthen the block itself - see the sections on the crankshaft and balancing for more detail. Running a steel girdle on the mains might help to some degree, though there seems to be remarkably few problems with main caps walking or breaking, the main benefit of a heavy rigid girdle is as a vibration dampener.

Grout filling the block will also help dampen the harmonics to a degree, and also provide a little more cylinder wall stiffness. The amount of grout fill will of course will be a compromise between stiffness and cooling, particularly for engines running petrol rather than methanol.

The top 30mm - 40mm of the cylinder is the section that is under the most stress, and is therefore the bit that would most benefit from some grout support. Unfortunately this would also preclude any coolant circulation so would only work with a drag engine. You can however run some grout in the lower part of the water jackets without any overheating problems even in a street or circuit car, and it will help stiffen the cylinders a little bit. Filling to the bottom of the water pump opening will result in about 50mm of grout around the base of the cylinders, and while it's not really where the support is most needed it will help a bit.

In an attempt to strengthen the block, some guys have run long head studs that run through the deck and are anchored into holes tapped into the block at the bottom of the cylinders, and this will certainly help tie things together. It's not practical to do this on the cam side as the outer block wall prevents a straight shot from the deck to the base, but on the welch plug side where the support is needed most it's fairly easy to do.

Unfortunately the block is quite thin at the base of the cylinders so drilling and tapping will probably weaken this area seriously - and remember this is also where the main webs are anchored. You may be tempted to run long studs all the way from the main caps to the head, but even if you somehow get past the cam-side wall the studs will then intersect the oil passages and you'll be removing material from an area that can ill afford it. Not only that, you'll have to somehow seal around the studs to prevent coolant leakage into the sump and also at the head end.

It mightn't be impossible, but I seriously doubt it would be worth the effort and the end result could well be a block that is weaker than it was originally.

The later blocks have a little more webbing than the early red blocks so should be a bit stronger, but prolonged high power levels will be problematic for any block. Drag or street engines should have few problems but for applications such as circuit racing it's something to consider. The way to help the block survive is not by working on the block itself, but by using the lightest possible pistons and rods with a properly balanced counterweighted crankshaft.

More details in the relevant section. For engines that are less than very highly tuned - and any remotely sensible street engine - block breakage is unlikely to be much of a problem, even with a non-counterweighted crank. There are quite a few different types of cranks for the little Holden.

There are two stroke lengths; the engine uses a 3. There are also two different materials used; the 3" cranks made before the introduction of the HK in mid '67 are steel, plus the X2, the S and the XU1s used steel as well, while all s and s are cast. Strength and durability doesn't seem to be an issue for either type, and remember Brocky won Bathurst in a cast cranked Torana so I wouldn't be too concerned about the lack of steel cranks.

Big end journal size is the same with all engines, but the and the later blue 's use a bigger main journal than the others. The later 12 port but not the engines had fully counterweighted cranks that make life quite a bit easier for the mains and the block. For a street motor or any engine that is subject to sustained high revs I'd go for the counterweighted crank, though for some forms of short-duration racing the lighter non-counterweighted crank might have an advantage.

See the section on balancing for more details on this. Besides the different main journal diameters mentioned earlier there are also variations in rear main seal dimensions so if you are planning to use a crank in an earlier block perhaps to make an engine that's bigger than the numbers on the block indicate you will have some machining to do.

The rope seal cranks have a slightly bigger diameter seal journal than the lip seal cranks, but the journal can be ground down to the smaller size if necessary. This allows a late fully-counterbalanced crank to be used in a red neoprene-seal block.

The neoprene seals seem a bit more prone to leaking than the rope seals but either will work if installed very carefully. Bearing clearances should be no more than. Similarly, you want to keep the rod side clearance fairly close to the stock figures in order to prevent throwing too much oil around. When scrounging for cranks keep an eye out for units that were used with an auto transmission - the manuals had a tendency to wear out the thrust faces fairly badly.

Drilling and tapping the crank snout is worth considering; not only does it enable the use of a balancer retaining bolt it also lets you pull the balancer onto the crank gently instead of driving it on with a hammer. Some of the earlier cranks had smaller diameter oil holes, and while these cranks were fine for normal use they were prone to bearing problems at high speeds. Later s etc. Definitely do not crossdrill the journals.

It's normal practice to slightly chamfer any sharp edges or corners on the oil holes but don't get carried away and flare them too much - it just reduces the bearing area. Some people like to run knife-edged cranks, where the outer circumference of the counterweights are bevelled back to an edge. Sometimes the leading edges of the counterweights are bevelled too.

The idea is to reduce the windage and drag on the crank, and it also reduces the rotating mass. While this sounds cool I'm not sure it's worth it on a horsepower-per-dollar basis. I know that the oil wrap-around effect on the crank can cause drag and sap power at high revs, but unless you plan on going the whole hog with a special sump design and scrapers and so on I suspect the gains from running a knife edged crank on its own would be minimal.

You could probably get away with using a new standard balancer on a 3" stroke engine or a mild , but for high RPM work you'll have to use a competition style balancer as an absolute minimum, especially on a 3.

If you decide to use a stock balancer consider fitting some sort of retaining ring or flange to the front to stop the rim from walking off the hub. There are a few different types of heavy duty balancers around and while they aren't cheap they can be good insurance.

A stock balancer may come apart at high speeds, with possibly disastrous results. Depending on what combination of balancer and timing cover you are using, the timing marks may not actually indicate TDC so remember to check it and re-mark it if necessary.

More info in the next section.. At high rpms, the Holden crank suffers from a fair bit of torsional vibration of the crankshaft, though it's not as severe as in some other straight sixes.

For those not familiar with the phenomenon a quick summary goes like this: the crank is being continually subjected to impulsive forces from combustion and compression pressures as well as inertial loadings from accelerating and deccelerating the reciprocating bits.

These forces vary in direction and magnitude and tend to make the crank motion somewhat jerky rather than spinning at a constant speed. Now, the crank isn't perfectly rigid and is somewhat restrained at one end by the flywheel and the load but is relatively free at the front.

Because of this there is some relative twisting forward and back between the ends of the crank. Providing this isn't excessive it's not a problem say not much more than a degree or so. The thing is though the crank because of its springiness has its own natural resonance or frequency that it wants to vibrate at, a bit like a guitar string.

And if the frequency of the impulses fed into the crank match the natural resonating frequency of the crank or a multiple thereof then things can get ugly. If left uncontrolled the amplitude of the torsional vibrations will jump dramatically. This isn't just a gentle buzz either, the vibrations can be violent enough to break the crank, or shear the flywheel bolts or shake the rim off the balancer.

Incidentally, it's quite common for straight six crankshafts to resonate at a frequency that corresponds with - rpm. Provided you can stay above or below these critical speeds then vibration is usually negligible or at least manageable. Controlling the vibrations is a separate story I've recently spent a fair bit of time studying published information regarding torsional vibration and different types of harmonic balancers.

The idea was to gain an understanding that would help me select a suitable harmonic balancer for a somewhat oddball Holden six. Unfortunately after many hours of research I'm really no further ahead; while the physics of torsional vibration are well understood, there is little in the way of reliable data related to the hardware needed to control it.

Manufacturers data often seems to be deliberately incomplete or misleading, and much of the information related to practical control of TV is contradictory.

For what it's worth and it's not worth much here are a few notes on different styles of dampers:. Rubber bonded dampers like the OEM style are by far the most popular.

They consist of a heavy outer ring attached to a crank mounted hub by a thin layer of rubber. They have a natural resonant frequency that depends on the mass of the ring and the characteristics of the rubber. Manufacturers claim that they are carefully tuned to match the particular engine but this is not strictly accurate. All that's really important is that the resonance of the balancer doesn't match the resonance of the crank.

Detractors claim bonded balancers are only effective at a certain rev range but in reality they are fairly effective over a wide range of speeds - excluding of course the speed that matches the balancers own resonating frequency. Manufacturers publish graphs showing that these types outperform other styles and as far as I'm aware these are the only type of balancer available off-the-shelf for the little Holden. Fluid damped units eg. Fluidampr again use a heavy ring, but this time it's in a closely fitting steel shell that holds a heavy viscous silicone fluid along with the ring.

Viscous shear provides the damping action. These units have no natural resonance of their own so I guess they would eliminate the possibility of inadvertantly operating them in the "wrong" speed range.

They seem to be mildly effective over the entire range but perhaps less effective than the other types at very high frequencies. Again, manufacturers publish graphs showing their product outperforming the other types. Pendulum type balancers have been used extensively on aircraft engines for years, and an automotive unit using roughly the same priciple is available in the TCI Rattler.

This design uses a solid wheel which has had several usually nine holes drilled through, close to the periphery. Steel rollers fit into each hole with a certain amount of clearance and as the crank vibrates the rollers are displaced within the holes to a different position.

The mass of the rollers looks quite small compared to the pendulums in the aircraft engines though having said that the Rattler does seem to enjoy a fairly good reputation. There is no natural resonance with these balancers and they are said to be effective over the entire range. TCI publishes graphs showing surprise, surprise the Rattler outperforming the other types. If you plan on frequently running high revs - say rpm plus - then it's important to get a suitable balancer on the front of the crank, and this will very likely be bigger and heavier than the stocker.

Romac make some fairly big competition balancers for the six - as to their effectiveness I don't know for certain. Fluid filled dampers from Perkins diesels have been used very successfully in the past though I doubt if the original designers of these ever intended them to see very high speeds. Another alternative is to adapt steel competition dampers made for larger engines, eg. Chev V8s. And you could probably argue that a Holden 6 at rpm would be producing torsional vibrations at a similar frequency to a Chev V8 at rpm anyway.

Adapting a fluid or pendulum type balancer from another engine would sidestep the potential tuning problem and may be a safer option. Finding the space to accomodate a big balancer might not be easy, but if you're turning big revs then you really have no choice. A steel flywheel is also a necessity if you'll be running higher rpms, say plus. You might get away with the cast wheel but for the price of a steel one it's just not worth the risk. Flywheel weight is a matter of personal preference and is also subject to the intended usage.

Cars with a very high power to weight ratio will benefit from the lightest possible flywheel, while at the other end of the scale it could pay to use plenty of flywheel weight with a heavy, modestly powered car. The heavy wheel will help get the car off the line and may more than make up for the slight drop in acceleration. Torsional vibration also manifests itself at the flywheel end, most commonly by continually loosening the flywheel bolts. The later engines used a dowel to help stop the flywheel from walking on the crank flange.

As a minimum on a competition engine you should use two hardened dowels and a set of ARP style bolts. The mating faces must be perfectly clean, flat and dry before assembly. For a mild street engine, particularly a 3" stroke that won't be revved much past rpm the stock red motor rods should be fine. However if you're going to be turning - rpm plus then it would be wise to use something stronger. In the past it was fairly common to use rods from other makers, eg. Aluminium rods would normally be a good choice for an engine like the little six, for their light weight as well as their shock-dampening capacity, but the close proximity of the camshaft to the crank makes fitting the bulky aluminium rods difficult.

Always replace the rod bolts when stripping and reassembling the engine, the aftermarket ARP bolts are the usual choice. Aftermarket rods give us the option of using a longer rod for a better rod:stroke ratio so we might as well take a quick look at this.

A longer rod is desirable at high rpms; it makes for slower piston velocities to and from TDC with a corresponding increase around BDC and this gives slightly higher average combustion pressures as well as less side loading on the Holdens slightly fragile cylinder walls.

The stock rod ratio is barely reasonable on the 3" stroke engines; on the s though it's definitely on the short side and it's certainly worth looking at for higher rpm work. Before you go ordering special rods though there are some practical considerations to think about.

Firstly the increase in rod length has to be quite large to have any appreciable effect - it's unlikely that a rod of only 5mm or so extra length would make measurably more power, though another 15 - 20mm or so would help. But this leads us to another problem, the piston. Obviously a longer rod will require a piston with a higher pin position, but there are limits to how far this can be taken. The side load from the rod angularity is transmitted to the cylinder wall via the gudgeon pin and piston skirt, and ideally the pin would be positioned exactly half-way up the skirt to maintain durability and minimise drag and piston rock.

Moving the pin centreline towards the piston crown puts side loads on the ring pack, a part of the piston poorly suited for this duty. Piston rock at TDC will increase while ring seal and durability will decrease. What I'm getting at is this: substantially longer rods will improve performance, but only if a reasonable pin position can be maintained. The deck height of the Holden block allows for using rods of up to about 5.

But if using longer rods also meant using ugly pistons I'd just forget about it and stick with rods closer to the stock-length. This pin position issue along with an excessively short rod ratio also arises with stroker engines, and again it would pay to do whatever was necessary to keep the pin as close to the middle of the skirt as possible, perhaps by slightly crowding the ring pack towards the crown. In extreme cases a special piston could be made with a single compression ring positioned as high as possible, and with the oil ring below the pin.

Stock rods - including Starfires - use a pressed in gudgeon pin. This seems to work well even with fairly big increases in speeds and horsepower, but in an all-out engine floating pins will be less likely to gall the pin bores of the piston. Starfire rods have had the little end bored for bronze bushes successfully in the past, but the wall thickness will be very thin after this operation and I'd be a bit nervous about doing it. Quality control isn't all that flash with the Holden rods and some of the pin bores end up being quite a bit off centre.

If you must bush Starfire rods try to find rods that have a uniform amount of material around the little-end eye. It seems like nearly everyone has an opinion on engine balancing and the ideal balance factor. Search the internet forums for "engine balancing" and you'll soon be wading through thousands of posts. Unfortunately most of them will contain nothing but misinformed opinions, hearsay, old wives tales and plain old BS.

Pretty typical misinformation levels for car forums come to think of it. For what they're worth here are my opinions Depending on the application, balancing can be either a non-issue or it could be of supreme importance.

Mild street engines with a rev ceiling of not much more than say - rpm will survive quite nicely without any particular attention, and with either a counterbalanced or non-counterbalanced crank. Providing the piston and rod weights are reasonably matched I wouldn't bother with balancing at all. If it makes you feel better though, go ahead and balance it.

As the rev range rises though, it becomes more and more important to both use a counterweighted crank and to have the entire rotating assembly balanced. Once you get into the speed ranges of rpm and above, it becomes critical to use the lightest possible rods and pistons along with a fully counterbalanced crank in order to avoid breaking blocks.

Before we go any further we might just take a look at how the rotating and reciprocating masses act within a multi cylinder inline engine. As usual this'll be a grossly oversimplified explanation but hopefully it will help. Picture a typical inline four it's simpler than a six but the same principles apply. It will have a single plane crank, where pistons 1 and 4 rise and fall together, as do 2 and 3 which are degrees from the end cylinders. Ignoring the rotating masses for a minute imagine pistons 1 and 4 approaching TDC - by the way the crank on our engine has no counterweights whatsoever.

As they are slowed down they pull up on the rods and this force is transmitted through the crank to the block. Now, if there were no counteracting force applied these two pistons would be jerking the engine up and down every time they pass through top or bottom dead centre. Riders of old Triumph and Norton twins will understand this intimately. The thing is though, as 1 and 4 approach TDC pistons 2 and 3 will be slowing as well as they approach the opposite dead centre, providing a countering downward force that exactly cancels out the force from the other two cylinders.

Similarly, if we now look at the rotating masses crankpins, rod big ends etc. The Holden six has a similar inherent balance, and so runs more or less free of vibration even without counterweighting - and even if it does have counterweights the vibration level won't change much regardless of the balance factor used.

In practice, the Holden six can buzz quite badly at high revs. But this is mainly due to torsional vibration of the crankshaft, a different kettle of fish altogether and mainly unrelated to balancing. Okay then, if vibration isn't a problem why is it so important to run a counterbalanced crank on our sixes? Let's go back to our four cylinder engine for a minute. Imagine the crank is spinning at say rpm, and pistons 1 and 4 are being slowed down as they approach the top of their stroke.

Lets say each of these pistons is applying a force equivalent to about kg, and likewise pistons 2 and 3 are each applying the same force downwards. Obviously the forces will cancel each other out and there will be no tendency to vibrate. But look at where the forces are applied.

In effect we have a force equivalent to 2 tonnes applied upwards at each end of the block, while another 4 tonnes is applied downwards to the centre. In other words we are expecting the block to act as a beam as we apply pretty severe bending loads to it.

Imagine supporting the block at each end and pushing down on the middle with a hydraulic press, then releasing the weight before rolling it over and repeating the procedure. Now imagine doing this times a minute. Looked at in this way it's pretty easy to see why the Holden blocks tend to disintegrate when subjected to high speeds with a non-counterweighted crank.

Remember too that these huge loads make their way to the block through the crank and the bearings, so these too are stressed considerably. It's pretty obvious that if we fit counterweights to each crank web we can provide a counteracting force for each cylinder that acts on the individual cylinders axis, and thereby eliminating the bending loads on the crank and block. This introduces another problem though. At mid stroke the counterweights will be applying lateral forces at opposing locations to the block, so we still have bending forces at work.

This way we reduce the loads at top and bottom centres by about half, while introducing lateral loads at mid stroke that are of a similar magnitude. In other words we swap two big vertical forces for two small vertical forces plus two small lateral forces. It seems fashionable at the moment to "overbalance" engines for very high rpm work, using balance factors of 60 or more percent.

Typically though, the people doing this provide no logical or convincing reasoning for this. I guess if you had reliable data showing that your block is stiffer laterally than vertically, or vice-versa, then you may be able to justify some amount of under or over balance.

Some builders like to add a few grams for oil, though how the hell they know exactly where the oil will be clinging to the rotating and reciprocating bits is beyond me. Some also painstakingly balance everything to a jillionth of a gram but like the oil thing this is just wank. If the individual components share weights within a few grams, and the balance factor is somewhere near an appropriate figure then it's as good as it's going to get.

Taking it to ridiculously fine tolerances will achieve no measurable results. We briefly looked at knife-edged cranks in the crankshaft section, but it may pay to reiterate here: if engine durability is a factor do not knife-edge the counterweights.

For a high revving Holden six that's already somewhat fragile I feel the slight gains from reduced weight and windage are far outweighed by the significantly increased stresses introduced by the cut-down counterweights. So what do we do if we want or need to rev our engine to the moon and remain in one piece?

A heavy, rigid main girdle can also help by dampening vibrations and stiffening the block laterally. Builders of smaller, 3" stroke engines are disadvantaged in that counterbalanced cranks aren't available. A billet crank is another expensive alternative, otherwise you're pretty much stuck with using a late crank. The stock Holden system is simple and relatively trouble free on a stock or mild engine, but could use some help with high rpms and high hp.

The Holden, like nearly all engines, has a bit of a problem supplying an appropriate amount of oil over a wide range of speeds. Increases in the crank speed do lead to a slight increase in oil requirements due to the increased throw-off, but its nowhere near the increase in oil flow provided by the pump as revs increase. The net result is less-than-ideal flow and pressure at low speeds but too much at high speeds.

Depending on the oil viscosity and the bearing clearances it will take anywhere from 20 to 30 litres per minute to oil the little six. The standard size oil pump can supply this and so should be sufficient for nearly any high performance engine, and the only application I can think of where a high volume pump might be useful is an engine that runs at unusually low speeds and high loads; a turbo engine perhaps.

It's surprising how much power is absorbed by an oil pump, and if you've ever primed a Chev with a power drill and dummy distributor you'll have experienced it first hand. Whenever there is an excess capacity the unused oil blows over the relief valve, and the energy that goes into this work is converted into heat. In other words it makes the oil hotter, and this is another reason to avoid the high volume pumps.

It's worth remembering these motors are pretty long in the tooth so you'd want to check out any used pump carefully before using it again. Check the clearance between the tips of the gear teeth and the pump body and reject any pump with more than a few thou clearance. Also check the end clearance and keep it down to about 2 thou. Backlash between the gears isn't really critical but check for badly worn or scored gears, or worn shafts and bushings. If there is any doubt about a used pumps condition it's best to replace it.

Higher speeds and looser bearing clearances - both of which are typical for a high performance engine - will require higher volumes of oil.

The standard pump will handle this, but the stock suction too small to ensure an adequate supply. If you want to retain the factory suction arrangement and it's perfectly fine with a factory style sump it pays to enlarge it a little.

There's no need to go overboard, flow capacity is proportional to the square of the tube diameter so even a small increase in tube size will help substantially. The stock pickup can be reused with the bigger tube; it may pay to slightly flare the end that is attached to the pickup to ease the entry into the tube, like a little bellmouth. Don't forget to reattach the support brace to prevent the tube from cracking.

Your local hydraulics supplier should be able to provide the tubing and fittings. The other way to upgrade the suction line is to use an external line, and this is the approach commonly used with so-called competition sumps. The original suction line is plugged and a hole drilled in the appropriate spot towards the front of the pump cover plate.

A threaded adaptor is silver soldered to the plate and a hose run from this to the sump. Again, you need to maintain this dimension all the way from the pickup to the pump port.

There is really no need to use those gay looking anodised fittings and stainless braided hose - the appropriate stuff from your local hydraulic hose shop is at least as good. It's important to reface the cover plate after attaching the adaptor to address any minor distortion that may have occurred.

Opening up the passages to 1,3,5 and 7 is good insurance against the cam bearings bleeding too much oil from these bearings. The main oil gallery intersects the lifter bores, so check that none of these bores are worn otherwise you'll be bleeding off oil before it gets to the crank.

Years ago some builders ran external lines to the end bearings but if you don't run excessively thick oil or excessive bearing clearance, drill the passages to the odd numbered mains and you have sufficient pressure this is unnecessary.

I can't stress enough the importance of keeping the viscosity down and also of not loading the engine until the oil has warmed up. On the other hand I've also seen other engines where the oil has been thinned dramatically through fuel dilution where the bearings have survived nicely.

Naturally all the oilways in the block and crank will have to be thoroughly cleaned, and if you avoid excessively loose bearing clearances you should have no trouble maintaining enough oil pressure. Two to three thou should be enough to ensure a reasonable flow across the bearings, but not so loose as to drop the pressure too much at lower speeds.

This method should be more reliable than the old "pipe cleaners in the pushrods method". Of course all this work will be for nothing if the oil pump pickup becomes uncovered, even if only for a second. The primary objective of any oiling system will always be to provide a constant, uninterupted flow of oil.

Do whatever is necessary to build or buy an oil pan that will suit the intended use of the car. Under full load the bearings can be burnt in a painfully short time without oil - picking up a momentary bubble of air may damage the engine in a time period too short for the oil pressure gauge to react. This is one thing you absolutely must get right.

Choose your oil carefully and be aware that nearly all modern petrol engine oils will be unsuitable for a high-output Holden straight six. Unfortunately you can't find out much about an oil just by reading the container - even the SAE viscosity numbers cover such a wide range to be almost useless. An example of this is an oil marketed as say SAE30 that is at the high end of the 30 range. This oil may actually be more viscous than another oil at the low end of the 40 range that's marketed as an SAE It pays to check the makers Technical Data Sheets where you will find accurate specs on the viscosity at various temperatures as well as other info.

While we're on the subject, viscosities really have little relation to an oils lubrication abilities so there is no point in running a thick oil, the increased drag just robs power. If you can't maintain adequate pressure with a 15w oil you have problems.

Years ago monograde oils had a significantly higher load capacity than multigrades but today there is very little difference so definitely go for the multigrade. It's crucial that you be gentle with the engine until it is thoroughly warm - keep the revs and the loading down until then. A 15w will circulate from cold and give sufficient protection when hot.

Leave the SAE 50s and 60s to the Harley guys. For those running a flat tappet cam - and this will be nearly everyone - look for an oil that contains zinc dithiophosphate ZnDTP. Almost none of the modern petrol engine oils and only some modern diesel oils have it, the reason being modern roller cammed engines don't need it and also because it tends to foul catalytic convertors and oxygen sensors.

More than likely you will end up using an oil designed primarily for diesel engines eg. Rimula Super and these generally work very well. Just don't put it in a very high mileage engine that hasn't previously been using diesel oil. The high detergent levels will quickly loosen up the accumulated crud in the engine with unpleasant results. For competition use there are quite a few racing oils eg. Valvoline that have high zinc levels, and these are even better than the diesel oils in high rpm applications.

What about synthetics? It's possible to pick up a few horsepower by using synthetic oil but there are a couple of things to watch out for. Also make sure the bearing clearances are suitable for the thinner synthetic oil - if the engine has been set up with "old-school" clearances for thick mineral oils you may find that the oil pressure drops excessively.

If you limit bearing clearances to. As for filtration, the stock setup is fine. Just be aware that many replacement filters are of exceptionally poor quality, and this includes the "performance" brands. Also be aware that many remote filter adaptors are quite restrictive so check them carefully before use. Not a lot to choose from here, at least not when compared with whats available for the Chev motors for example. And if you plan to build anything besides a the choices are quite limited.

Don't expect to be able to buy forged pistons off the shelf; if you need forged items you'll probably need to get them custom made or else adapt pistons made for something else. Cast high-silicon-content pistons are generally adequate for naturally aspirated engines of the specific outputs we are talking about here, though at the top end of this range the safety margin is getting a bit thin. The main thing of course is to avoid detonation.

More than likely you'll end up using the cast ACL Race-Series pistons in a , and these seem to hold up well. The rings supplied with these pistons have a thinner section and lower tension than the standard type pistons, and these are a definite advantage in higher-revving engines. There are flat top versions as well as one with a small dish, and unlike the standard replacement pistons the dish is offset to match the combustion chambers to help preserve some squish.

Taper wall pins are available in the Race-Series. These piston and ring packages were designed to be used in higher than normal output applications, and should be fine in nearly any normally aspirated or even lightly blown engine. The early s had a habit of breaking off the skirt of the original pistons at high revs, though this is not a problem with good quality aftermarket items.

If you're building something other than a , your choices are much more limited. Many people have had good results from Duralites. These will stand up to much higher pressures and speeds than they were originally designed for, but still you need to be realistic in your expectations.

They were never intended for very high compression ratios, and they don't come with the thin low tension Race-Series rings. Be extra careful to avoid detonation with standard replacement type pistons because they can be hammered to death very quickly.

They'd probably be OK up to about hp but if you are going after every horsepower you can get it might be best to do whatever it takes to get some forgings or at least some Hypereutectic type castings. Using longer rods or a longer stroke length requires a piston with a higher pin height, and this can lead to problems if taken too far.

See the section on connecting rods for more detail. Ok, we're starting to get into the juicy stuff here - the head is the key to making power with the little Holdens. There are basically two different head designs used on the six, the 9 port as used on the red motors and the 12 port used on the blue and blacks. It's no exaggeration to say that both types are spectacularly bad from a performance perspective.

We'll look at the 9 port first. While engines from other manufacturers of the same era had head porting that was at least adequate or even too big eg. Cleveland or square port BB Chev , the 9 port Holden head was barely able to feed stock motors. The bigger, later motors were equally asthmatic despite having bigger valves. Where other engines responded well to intake, exhaust or especially cam upgrades, the old Holdens never really woke up until the head was modified.

The intake ports in particular were abysmal, but on the positive side even the most godawful butchery of the ports nearly always produced an increase in power.

Perfectune recognized an opportunity to provide an exchange head with improved porting and bigger valves, and sold squillions of their YellaTerra heads. The mods were basic and mainly carried out on automatic machines, keeping the prices low. Power and fuel economy could be substantially improved with nothing more than a head upgrade. There are still a lot of these YT heads around and on a mild performance engine they do a reasonable job, with the so called "Bathurst" style heads capable of making odd hp.

Lets look more closely at the 9 port heads. The most obvious feature is the siamese inlet ports, with the six cylinders grouped into three pairs Cross Dowel Bolt Toolstation Dataset and each pair sharing an inlet port.

Cylinders 1 and 2 share an inlet port, as do 3,4 and 5,6. Traditionally siamese ports have been considered unsuitable for high performance engines and in many cases eg.

BMC 4's there is good reason for this. However, in the case of the Holden motor port sharing can hardly be blamed for the heads poor performance. So obviously there is no chance for one cylinder to rob it's neighbour. The end pairs of cylinders are slightly different, and there is a short period during each cycle where one intake is closing while the other is starting to open.

But this period is so short and occurs at a time when there is so little flow that any inter-cylinder influence will be negligible. It's not the fact that the ports are siamesed that hurts the flow, it's the basic design of the port along with that head bolt that passes through it.

The valves are all inline and only slightly canted and this, combined with the fact that the ports are quite low, makes for a sharp, almost right angled bend in the valve pocket area. Add to this a cast iron pillar that runs up the centre of the port near the gasket face and things are looking even worse. This pillar is where the head retaining bolt passes through, and is quite thick, almost a third of the port width.

Over the years there have been several approaches to solving the head bolt problem, the most common being to cut the thick pillar out, replacing it with a thinwall steel tube.

This is what YellaTerra did, and it's quite effective in increasing flow. Some people have cut the pillar out and installed a socket head cap screw in the floor of the port to clamp the head down, then screwed a flush fitting plug into the hole in the port roof. I doubt that there is much difference in flow either way, but the conventional steel tube approach is the most convenient.

Fortunately there is a lot of meat in the port walls to work with, and it's easy to get big increases in flow and power output. If you're serious about making power, you should leave the port work to someone with the experience and equipment to get good results, and these people can get a 9 port head to flow enough to make over hp. In fact, in terms of sheer bulk flow you'll probably get more from a 9 port head than a 12 port, though of course bulk flow is only part of the story.

The centres are fairly widely spaced, so there is plenty of room for bigger valves and seats. The downside to this is that the valves are very badly shrouded at the sides of the chamber, and it's pointless to try to widen the chamber because the side walls already overhang the cylinder walls.

And anyway, there just isn't enough material between the adjacent chambers to lay the walls back much and still have sufficient thickness in between to support the head gasket. Of course the shrouding becomes worse as the valve size is increased, partially negating the benefits of using those big valves. Not only is the gas flow restricted by the chamber wall, it has to negotiate the ledge at the top of the cylinder bore.

If you lay a head gasket on a cylinder head you will see that the openings aren't perfectly round, and match the shape of the chamber. Now lay the gasket on the block deck, and you can visualise the step or ledge under the chamber. Obviously the smaller the cylinder bore, the bigger the ledge, and it's a good reason to use the biggest available bore size. It's not uncommon to see these ledges on each side of the top of the bore chamfered or radiused back with a grinder to match the chamber, but if you decide to do this I'd be careful not to go too deep.

The chamfer will definitely expose the part of the piston above the top ring to a lot of heat so I'd be wary of going more than about 3mm deep. You would expect that replacing this sharp ledge with a chamfer or radius would help flow - and nearly everyone does it - but to be honest I haven't been able to measure much improvement in flow.

For a street engine I wouldn't bother. We'll talk about combustion chambers more after we look at the 12 port heads as they are pretty similar with both types of head. If youre doing the head work yourself, all I can suggest is that you resist the temptation to make the ports huge and concentrate on slightly raising the roof of the ports, tapering them back from the port face to the valve bowl, so in effect the angle under the valve is less severe.

Of course, you need to be able to match your intake manifold. Larger valve seats will have to be blended in and the bowl area can be opened up. The Holden ports are a bit unusual in that they seem to flow best when the bowl area is pretty much straight sided, and almost as big in diameter as the inside diameter of the valve seat. Don't grind the port floor at all, except to clean up any dags. There is no need for significant widening on any reasonable street engine. The biggest gains will come from fitting oversized valves, reducing the shrouding and from reducing the width of the head bolt boss.

It isn't strictly necessary to cut it out and fit a steel tube, just narrow it and streamline it. The earlier engines had intake valves of about 1.

Later red s and s had 1. For a high output application you really need an intake valve of around 1. There's not much point going beyond this because the shrouding just becomes too tight and especially with the small chambers excessively big valves may actually flow less.

The exhaust ports flow quite well by comparison, and again there is plenty of meat to work with. There is a thick wall dividing the centre four exhaust ports, and these also have a head bolt passing through them.



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