06.01.2021  Author: admin   Diy Wood Projects To Sell
In construction, however, it is often used as an adjective referring to the broadest part of the hull, wherever it may be. Also, the lowest side strake of a flat-bottomed hull. In long wooden dowels 001, for loads perpendicular to the beam axis, it is recommended to perform a splitting check in both wooden elements. Oakum [Oakham]. Abrasive Attachments Wire Brushes. Can be used on steel plates in combination with the VGU washer.

You need a separate switch for each lane. Take the back off the stop watches. When the two pieces of metal touch they complete a circuit that starts the stop watch. When they touch a second time they stop the watch.

Cut a inch long piece of speaker wire and pull the two lines apart. Attach one side of the speaker wire to one of the slips of metal and the other wire to the other piece of metal. Jam a piece of cardboard or plastic between the two pieces of metal so that they don't accidentally touch. Tape the first inch of the wire down so everything stays in place, drill two two holes in the stop watch's plastic back, push the wires through it and screw the back in place.

Now when you touch the ends of the wires the timer will start. When you touch them again it'll stop. Twist the ends of the wires to the ends of the wires from the start switch and you're almost done. Mount the two remaining switches on a scrap of the remaining masonite so that they face forward and are in line with the guide rails. Clip a 2-inch long length of nylon from a very small zip tie and tape it to the switch's arm so that when a car runs off the end of the track it bends the nylon forward and down and in so doing activates the switch.

Now the start switch will start the timer and the stop switch at the end of the track will stop it. Repeat the wiring procedure for the other side and you have a two-lane timer that's good to 0. While this isn't precise enough for research it's more than sufficient to decide close races. When this track was built the only stop watches available locally were accurate to 0. On-line searches will provide sources for 0.

These are acceptable for research. The success of the super-cheap 2-lane track described above got me wondering if similar materials and techniques could be used to build a 4-lane track good enough for hosting formal pinewood derby competitions.

As I began to develop plans, I also decided to address several problems with the professionally made pinewood derby tracks.

This expense prevents many clubs from purchasing one. Other problems are that when disassembled they're too big and heavy for one person to handle, are too long to transport for anyone Extra Long Wooden Dowels Reaction who doesn't have a van or truck and too bulky for convenient storage.

The design I present below resolves all these problems. The price paid for this low cost and convenience is the time and effort invested to make one, about 40 hours. Here's what the assembled track looks like:. This track is 39 feet, 5 inches long, the last 4 feet of which are the stopping section.

The start end of the track is the standard 48 inches high and the actual race distance from starting gate to timer is 34 feet 4 inches. Covering the sides with checkerboard cloth and a race logo enhances the track's appearance. Packaged for transportation, the two units are small enough to be carried in the smallest compact car.

Each package weighs 48 pounds. This may seem a lot for one person to carry but because they weigh the same they balance each other and the carrying slings allow them to be carried straight-armed, so very little arm strength is needed. I'm 63, not in great shape and have a weak back yet I find I can manage these with remarkable ease.

The basic construction is the same as for the 2-lane track. One difference is that the overhanging sections of the guide rails used to connect the bed sections are only 2-inches long and only use one screw each. This was done to minimize the length of the pieces to facilitate storage and transportation.

Another difference is that there are hinged legs attached to the bottom of the first three track sections to elevate the start end of the track. These legs force the first eight feet of the track into a flat zone with a degree incline, which is standard configuration for most tracks. The two red arrows point to 1x2 inch pine boards used to stiffen the first four feet of track. Once the track is assembled, the start end is raised and the legs swung down and locked in place with the two brass draw catches at the top of the legs.

Then the other legs are rotated down. The first legs are inches tall, the second are located 47 inches away and are 28 inches tall, the third The legs are made from 2x2s. The final leg is a 1. In I could only find this material in Home Depot. Lowes didn't carry it. When selecting sheets only buy those that are flat, have clean edges and unmarred surfaces. This was a problem when I built my pinewood derby track. One Home Depot had its sheets placed so high I couldn't reach them to examine them and the sheets were badly warped by only being supported by two arms.

Many of them also had badly dented edges. The other Home Depot had sheets down low where I could sort through them and were perfectly flat, but they actually measured 49 x 97 inches and had edges that looked like they had been cut by a maniac with a chain saw. In the end I chose the larger sheets and recut the edges to clean them up. Because I made a mistake cutting the ends square, I had to recut them resulting in track sections that were only 47 inches long, which is why the final track ended up an odd length.

I tried several different blades in my sabersaw and found the Progessor type by Bosch cut the cleanest. Since this is going to be a top quality pinewood derby track it's important that all edges be straight and square. I highly recommend purchasing a good, 18 x inch steel square and an 8-foot metal straight edge for this. Start by making sure that the ends of the 4x8 sheets are straight and square to the sides. If they aren't, recut them.

Next, carefully cut eleven, inch wide by inch long boards. Because the car wheels don't touch the edges of these boards the edges do not need to be perfectly straight and even This will be good practice for cutting the guide rails, which do have to be perfect. These must be as perfect and uniform as possible. I ended up cutting twice as many as I needed because I messed up so many they had to be thrown away. Figure on going through 4 blades cutting the guide rails.

MDF is soft but you're cutting over feet altogether so blades wear out. After the guide rails are cut, sort them into four stacks where they are as similar in width as possible.

Next, load up your DVD player with a stack of your favorite movies and get ready for 20 hours of sanding. While the simple 2-lane pinewood derby track used guide rails that only had a light sanding, a track good enough for competition needs rails that are hard and glass smooth Do one set of strips at a time to avoid mixing stacks. First up, sand both sides of each strip with grit sandpaper. You'll need at least ten sheets cut into quarters to do this.

Work the upper edge, the vinyl coated edge, enough to create a slight curve. Run the sandpaper up and down the length of the guide strip, not perpendicular to it or you may pull off the vinyl coating. After that's done, stack the guide strips up and place them on a paper covered surface in a well ventilated area.

You want them on edge but leaning so that the sides and top curved edges are exposed. Caulking iron Fig. A chisel-shaped tool used to drive caulking into seams. Caulking mallet Fig. A short-handled mallet used to strike caulking irons.

Ceiling Fig. G-5 , nos. The internal planking of a vessel. A wooden or iron plate that could be raised and lowered within a watertight housing called the trunk ; the trunk was built over a slot in the keel or in the hull bottom next to the keel.

Centerboards increased lateral resistance and therefore reduced leeway when tacking or sailing off the wind. Chamfer [Beveled edge] Fig.

The flat, sloping surface created by slicing the edge off a timber. Channel [Chain wale]. A thick, horizontal plank projecting from the side of a vessel and used to support the shrouds and keep them clear of the bulwarks. Channel wale. A wale, or belt of wales, located at the line of the channels, to which the chains of the shrouds were fastened.

Charley Nobel Fig. The chimney, or flue, of the galley hearth or stove. Chase port. A gunport placed in the bow or stern to accommodate fore-and-aft mounted guns. Cheek [Cheek knee] Fig. On later vessels, a knee or brace between the side of the bow and the knee of the head; on ancient warships, a protuberance at the side of the stem against which the side planking was stopped.

The angular junction of the bottom and side of a vessel; usually found on flat-bottomed hulls, or those with little deadrise. Can also refer to a longitudinal timber located just inside the junction, to which athwartships bottom planks are fastened. Chock Figs. An angular block or wedge used to fill out areas between timbers or to separate them; chocks were used to fill out deadwoods and head knees, separate frames and futtocks, etc.

A term applied variously to pump wells or to collecting basins at the discharge ends of pumps. Clamp Fig.

A thick ceiling strake used to provide longitudinal strength or support deck beams; clamps were often located directly opposite the wales and acted as internal wales; a clamp that supported a deck beam was called a shelf clamp. Clench [Clinch] Fig. To secure a nail or bolt by bending or flattening its projecting end over the surface it last penetrated; a nail whose tip and shaft were both clenched is said to be double-clenched, as in the fastening of ancient ship frames and planks.

Clinker-built [Clincher-built, Clencher-built]. A vessel constructed so that its outer planking overlaps, and is fastened to, the plank immediately below it. Where planks overlap the ones above them there have been no European vessel finds to support this alleged method , the procedure is known as reverse clinker. The surface of a plank overlapped by a neighbor is called a land , and this double thickness is normally held together with closely spaced rivets or nails clenched over metal washers called roves.

Coak Figs. G-9m and G-9n. A rectangular or cylindrical pin let into the ends or seams of timbers about to be joined in order to align or strengthen the union.

Coaming [Combing] Fig. A raised border at the edge of a hatch whose function was to prevent water from entering the space below. On yachts, the well from which the vessel is directed. Common ceiling Fig.

The ordinary ceiling used to prevent cargo and ballast from falling between the frames; common ceiling was usually made from relatively thin planking and seldom contributed longitudinal strength to the hull structure. Compass timber [Compassing]. Naturally curved timbers used for frames and construction in the ends of a hull.

Copper-bottomed [Coppered]. A vessel whose bottom was sheathed in copper to prevent fouling and worm infestation. Counter Fig. Technically, the transverse section between the bottom of the stern and the wing transom. However, many documents and drawings refer to the counter as the entire transverse area between the top of the sternpost and the rail or taffrail. Counter timbers Figs. Ga — Gc. Vertical timbers framing the counter. An English translation of an old Norse term denoting the elongated mast steps on Viking vessels.

Crossbeam Fig. A substantial timber placed across a pair of bitts. Crotch [Crotch timber]. A V-shaped or Y-shaped frame or floor timber made from the crotch of a tree; usually mounted on the keel or deadwood in the ends of a vessel. Crow [Crow bar] Fig. A strong iron bar, pointed or chisel-shaped at one end, used for prying or moving heavy timbers. Crutch Figs. G-3 and Ga. A bracing timber used to prevent a mast step from shifting laterally; also, a curved or angular timber, similar to a breast hook and used for a similar purpose in the lower part of the stern.

On modern vessels, a support for booms at rest. The union of two planks or timbers whose ends were canted in the shapes of reverse curves. Cutting-down line. The elevations of the tops of the floor timbers and deadwoods; in most cases, the curved line formed by the bottom of the keelson, stemson, and sternson.

Cutwater Fig. The forwardmost part of the stem; the stem piece or nosing that parts the water. Dagger knee Figs. A knee set angularly on the inside of the hull; a knee that is neither vertical or horizontal. Dagger piece. Any piece of timber, but usually a frame timber, mounted at an angle to the vertical or horizontal planes.

Dead flat. The flat part of the hull in the area of the midship frame; generally, the widest part of the hull, which separated the forward part from the after part.

Deadrise Fig. The amount of elevation, or rising, of the floor above the horizontal plane; the difference between the height of the bilge and the height of the keel rabbet. Deadwood Fig. See also Rising wood. Deadwood knee Fig. A knee placed within the deadwood to support the sternpost. Deck hook. A breast hook placed beneath a deck to support it at or near the stem. Deck transom Fig. A transom that supported the after ends of deck planks.

Depth of hold. The distance between either the bottom of the main deck or the bottom of its beams and the limber boards, measured at the midship frame. Diagonal braces. Pillars or posts set angularly in the hull to stiffen it; although used in pairs, they differed from cross pillars in that each brace occupied only one side of the hull. Diagonal framing. Frames or riders placed diagonally over the regular frames or ceiling to provide additional stiffening to a hull.

Diagonal scarf [Diagonal butt] Fig. An angular junction of two planks or timbers. Diminishing strakes Fig. Belts of outer planking above and below the wales that were successively reduced in thickness, providing a more gradual transition from the protrusion of the wales to the thickness of the side planking. A vessel whose bow and stern have approximately the same horizontal shape, such as rounded, pointed, or square ends. Double framing Fig. A general term signifying frames composed of two rows of overlapping futtocks.

Dowel [Dowel pin] Fig. A cylindrical piece of wood of constant diameter used to align two members by being sunk into each. A cylindrical coak. Unlike treenails and pegs, dowels served an alignment function only, additional fastenings being necessary to prevent separation of the joint.

Draft marks [Draught marks, Load lines]. Figures or lines cut into, or attached to, the stem and sternpost to indicate the depth at which each end of the hull is immersed.

Drawknife Fig. A knife with two handles mounted at right angles to the blade; drawknives are used for shaping and beveling. The difference between the diameters of a bored hole and the bolt that is driven into it.

Drift bolt. A cylindrical bolt, headed on one end, that is slightly larger in diameter than the hole into which it is driven. Drop strake Fig. A strake of planking that is discontinued near the bow or stern because of decreasing hull surface area. A central stealer.

Brushwood, scrapwood, or other loose material laid in the hold to protect the cargo from water damage or prevent it from shifting, or to protect the ceiling from abrasion.

Ekeing [Lengthening piece] Fig. A timber used to lengthen another timber, such as the extension of a deck hook or knee. Eye bolt Fig. A bolt with a circular opening at one end. A name sometimes given to the hawse holes or the areas around them; on ancient ships, ocular decorations at the same locations. Fair curve [Fair line]. A shape or line whose curvature agrees with the mold loft or that is mechanically acceptable and seaworthy.

False keel [Shoe] Figs. G-3 , G-4a , G-4b , and G A plank, timber, or timbers attached to the bottom of the keel to protect it in the event of grounding or hauling; on large ships, false keels were sometimes made quite thick in order to increase the size and strength of the keel.

In North America from the eighteenth century onward, and perhaps in other areas, false keels were called shoes. An outer timber fixed to the forward surface of the stem to strengthen or protect it, or to provide better symmetry to the cutwater.

Also, a name sometimes given to the apron in English documents. False sternpost. A member attached to the after surface of the sternpost to reinforce or protect it. Fashion piece [Fashion timber] Fig. A timber that framed the shape of the stern. Figure piece Gd. A name sometimes given to the upper piece of the knee of the head, upon which the figurehead rested. Filling frame Fig. A frame composed of a single row of timbers, usually scarfed together, that filled the space between the main, or double-rowed, frames of a large ship.

Filling piece [Filler] Fig. A single timber or block used to fill out an area, such as the side of a gunport where it did not coincide with a frame, or in the spaces between frames to maintain rigidity. Fine lines. A descriptive term applied to a vessel with a sharp entrance and a narrow hull.

An English term for the modern Norwegian word describing the fishtail-shaped mast partners on Viking vessels. Fish plate Fig. A metal plate used to join two timbers externally. Flat scarf Fig. The union of two planks or timbers whose diagonal ends were nibbed cut off perpendicular to their lengths. When planking is scarfed vertically, the ends are not nibbed. Floor ribband [Floor ribbon]. The floor rising line; specifically, a ribband or batten fastened to the outside of the frames at the heads of the floor timbers; used for fairing and to determine the shapes and lengths of intermediate frames.

Floor timber Fig. A frame timber that crossed the keel and spanned the bottom; the central piece of a compound frame. Flush deck. A deck running continuously from bow to stern, without breaks or raised elements. Foot wale [Footwaleing] Fig. Thick longitudinal strakes of ceiling located at or near the floor head line or turn of the bilge. Some eighteenth-century English documents called the thick strakes next to the limber strake, or sometimes all of the ceiling, footwaleing , in which case the heavy strakes near the turn of the bilge were known as thick stuff.

Variously, a short, raised foredeck, the forward part of the upper deck between the foremast and the stem, or the quarters below the foredeck. A curved piece between the forward end of the keel and the knee of the head; the gripe. In some documents describing large ships, it is the name given to the rounded forward portion of the gripe, inserted as a separate piece. Forelock bolt Fig. An iron bolt with a head on one end and a narrow slot at the other; secured by placing a washer over its protruding end and driving a flat wedge, called a forelock , into the slot.

Forelock bolts were one of the most popular of shipbuilding fastenings, being commonly used to secure major timbers from Roman times until the nineteenth century. Frame Fig. A transverse timber, or line or assembly of timbers, that described the body shape of a vessel and to which the planking and ceiling were fastened. Frames were sometimes called timbers or, erroneously, ribs see Rib. Ancient ships often had frames composed of lines of unconnected timbers; later ships usually had compound frames composed of floor timbers , futtocks , and top timbers.

Square frames were those set perpendicular to the keel; in the bow and stern there were cant frames , running obliquely to the keel. Forward of the cant frames and fayed to them, in large round-bowed vessels, were the frames running parallel to the keel and stem, sometimes called knuckle timbers ; more accurately, these were the hawse pieces and knight heads , the latter being the frames adjacent to the apron or stem-son that extended above the deck to form bitts and support the bowsprit.

The aftermost frames were the fashion pieces , which shaped the stern. Frame details are illustrated in Figs. G-3 , G-5 , G , G , and G Futtock Fig. A frame timber other than a floor timber, half-frame, or top timber; one of the middle pieces of a frame. Futtock plank. In English shipbuilding, the first ceiling plank next to the limber strake. A seagoing vessel propelled primarily by oars, but usually one that also could be sailed when necessary. Gammoning hole [Gammoning slot] Fig.

An opening in the knee of the head through which the bowsprit gammoning lashing passed. Gammoning knee. Gammon piece Fig. The part of the knee of the head containing the gammoning hole.

G-4 and G The strake of planking next to the keel; the lowest plank. Also, the lowest side strake of a flat-bottomed hull. Girdling [Girding]. The practice of adding timber to the sides of ships to increase their breadth and thereby improve stability. The practice was most common on sixteenth- and seventeenth-century British vessels and was employed to overcome design flaws due to inability to calculate metacentric height.

A latticework hatch cover used for light and ventilation. Also, a term applied to the latticework deck in the heads of large ships. Graving [Breaming]. The vessel was careened or drydocked to perform this task. Graving iron Fig. A hook-like tool used for removing old caulking. Graving piece Fig. A wooden patch, or insert, let into a damaged or rotted plank.

Gripe Fig. A curved piece joining the forward end of the keel to the lower end of the knee of the head. Generally, the same as forefoot.

Gudgeon Fig. A metal bracket attached to the sternpost into which a rudder pintle was hung; the female part of a rudder hinge.

Gundeck Fig. The deck where the guns were located; large ships had as many as three gundecks a three-decker , called the lower, middle, and upper gundecks. Gunport framing. The sills , lintles , and filling pieces that shape and reinforce the gunports.

Gunwale [Gunnel] Fig. In sixteenth-century vessels, the wale against which the guns rest. Half beam Figs. G-7c and G-7d. A beam extending from the side to a hatch or other obstruction. See also Beam arm. A frame whose heel began at or near one side of the keel or deadwood and spanned part or all of that side of the hull; half-frames normally were used in pairs.

Hanging knee Fig. A vertical angular timber used to reinforce the junction of a beam and the side. Harpins [Harpings]. The forward planks of wales that were strengthened by increased thickness near the stem; usually found on large, round-bowed vessels.

Also, a term applied to specially shaped battens fitted to the cant frames or other areas of extreme curvature during construction; used to check and adjust frame bevels. Hatch [Hatchway] Fig. Hatch beam Fig. A removable beam that supported the hatch cover and provided lateral strength when the hatch was not in use.

Hawse bolster. One of the heavy planks fixed around or below the hawse holes to protect the hull planking. A cylindrical hole in the bow through which the anchor cable passed. Hawse piece [Hawse timber] Figs. A fore-and-aft framing timber whose heel was fayed to the forwardmost cant frame and which reinforced the bow of a large, round-bowed vessel; hawse pieces were so named because the hawse holes were partially cut through them.

The tube through which the anchor cable passed between the hawse hole and windlass or capstan deck. In a general sense, the forward part of a vessel; the extreme bow area; also, a name sometimes given to the figurehead or, on later vessels, to the latrine. See also Timber head.

Head knee. Sometimes a designation for cheek knee cheek , but more frequently an alternate term for knee of the head. Head ledge Fig. An athwartships hatch coaming. Headrails Fig. Curved rails extending from the bow to the knee of the head. The junction of the keel and sternpost; also, an angular timber connecting the keel to the sternpost. Separate heel timbers on cogs and cog-like vessels are most frequently called hooks. Heel knee [Stern knee]. An angular timber reinforcing the junction between the keel and the sternpost.

Helm port [Rudder hole] Figs. Ga and Gc. The opening in the stern where the rudder stock entered the hull. Helm port transom Figs. The timber reinforcing the helm port. Hogging truss [Hogging frame]. A strong fore-and-aft framework built into a vessel to prevent hogging; hogging trusses were most commonly seen in canal boats and other long inland vessels.

In ancient vessels, it Long Wooden Dowels For Cakes Lyrics was a strong cable supported by forked posts and attached to the ends of the hull to serve the same purpose. Hold Fig. In a general sense, the interior of a hull.

Hooding ends [Hoods, Hood ends]. The ends of planks that fit into the stem and sternpost rabbets; hooding ends were sometimes reduced in thickness to permit a better join with the posts. A knee-like timber that connected the keel or central plank to the stem or sternpost. A northern European designation, it is used almost exclusively in reference to cogs and cog-like vessels. In later English documents, bow hooks were called gripes ; stern hooks were called heels.

Hook and butt Fig. A method of planking whereby one edge of the plank was straight while its opposite side had sloping edges locked by a hook.

Infrequently, the term was also used to denote a hook scarf. Hook bolt Fig. A bolt with a hook-shaped head used for securing detachable lines, tackle, and other gear.

Hook scarf Fig. The union of two planks or timbers whose angular ends are offset to lock the joint. Hook scarfs are sometimes locked with wedges, or keys. Horning [To horn]. A process by which frames were aligned to assure that they were level and exactly perpendicular to the keel. See Horning pole for a description of the process. Horning pole [Horning board, Horning line]. A batten, pole, or line used to align frames; one end was mounted over the keel centerline, or atop the stem or sternpost, while the other end was marked and swung across each frame head to ensure that each side of the frame was equidistant from, and perpendicular to, the keel centerline.

G-3 and G-9l. A U-shaped iron plate fastened across the seam of the stem and forefoot to strengthen it. A cable or assembly of cables installed in ancient galleys to overcome hogging.

Inner stempost. The inner timber or timbers of a double-layered stem; unlike an apron, an inner stempost ends at the keel-stem scarf. Inner sternpost Fig. A vertical timber attached to the forward surface of the sternpost to increase its strength, and in some cases, to support the transoms.

Intermediate timbers. Those individual timbers installed between the sequential frames for additional localized strength. They could span part of the bottom, turn of the bilge, or side. The term applies primarily to ancient ships and inshore craft, where they reinforced the areas around beams, mast steps, bilge sumps, etc. See Plate knee. Jeer bitts Fig. Upright posts used for staying the various courses or halyards. Notches cut into the surface or edge of a timber, as in the exterior frame surfaces of clinker-built hulls or in the edges of some ancient Egyptian hull planks.

The main longitudinal timber of most hulls, upon which the frames, deadwoods, and ends of the hull were mounted; the backbone of the hull. Keel plank [Central plank, Kingplank]. A central hull plank that was substantially thicker than the rest of the bottom planking and whose breadth was at least twice as great as its thickness; a thick bottom plank used in lieu of a keel.

Keelson [Kelson] Figs. G-3 , G-4a , and G-4b. An internal longitudinal timber or line of timbers, mounted atop the frames along the centerline of the keel, that provided additional longitudinal strength to the bottom of the hull; an internal keel.

Most commonly, a single keelson was installed that was no larger than the keel. On very large vessels, however, various combinations of as many as a dozen keelsons were assembled. Where extra molding was required, one or more additional keelsons, called rider keelsons or false keelsons , were bolted to the top of the main keelson.

They could be of identical size to, or smaller than, the main keelson. Auxiliary keelsons bolted alongside the main keelson were known as sister U. However, care should be exercised in interpreting the various keelsons from contracts. For instance, some nineteenth-century American contracts for large schooners refer to the keelson above the main keelson as the sister, and the one above that as the assistant sister keelson.

On occasion, large square timbers were placed at the floor head line or near the bilge, usually above the bilge keels. These were called bilge keelsons or, in some British document, sister keelsons. Secondary keelsons did not necessarily run the full length of the hull, terminating at the ends of the hold, the last square frames, or some other appropriate location. Figure G-4 illustrates some typical arrangements. Keel staple [Keel clamp] Figs. G-3 and G-4a. A large metal staple used to attach the false keel to the keel.

Kevel head. The extension of a frame or top timber above the bulwarks to form a bitt, to which ropes were secured. Kingplank [Central strake, Kingstrake]. Variously, the central strake of a flush deck or the central strake of a hull without a keel. Knee [Knee timber] Figs. An angular piece of timber used to reinforce the junction of two surfaces of different planes; usually made from the crotch of a tree where two large branches intersected, or where a branch or root joined the trunk.

See also Dagger knee , Hanging knee , Lodging knee , and Standing knee. Knee of the head [Head knee] Fig. A knee or knee-shaped structure, fixed to the forward surface of the stem, that formed the cutwater at its lower end and supported the headrails and figurehead at its upper end. Knightheads Figs.

The forwardmost frame timbers, which ran parallel to the stem, their heels being fayed to the forwardmost cant p. Also, a name given to a pair of bitts, located just aft of the foremast on merchant ships, that supported the ends of the windlass, or to any bitt whose upper end was carved in the shape of a human head.

Knuckle timbers Fig. A name sometimes applied to the fore and aft frames in the bow of a roundbowed ship. Since the beginning, our philosophy of business has been to Buy Direct and Sell Direct to the end user, avoiding traditional dealership networks and passing the savings directly to the customer.

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