05.12.2020  Author: admin   Build A Frame
This is typically a swim, a weight-training workout, or a run-interval workout. I also check my sleep hours using an Oura Smart Ring. After that I come home, get all four of my kids up and make breakfast and lunches modern woodworking chapter 12 answers value them, and talk to them about their day before taking them to school. Moreover, recruiters may suffer from perceptual biases and hire some candidates thinking that they fit with the culture even though the actual fit is low. A proper chest is still the best. Here are a couple of no-nonsense shop helpers that can make your small shop….

As you can see, the final item in the table indicates that we communicate in order to meet our needs. What are those needs? We will discuss them next. Psychologist Abraham Maslow provides seven basic categories for human needs, and arranges them in order of priority, from the most basic to the most advanced. In this figure, we can see that we need energy, water, and air to live. Without any of these three basic elements, which meet our physiological needs 1 , we cannot survive.

We need to meet them before anything else, and will often sacrifice everything else to get them. Once we have what we need to live, we seek safety 2. A defensible place, protecting your supply lines for your most basic needs, could be your home. For some, however, home is a dangerous place that compromises their safety.

Children and victims of domestic violence need shelter to meet this need. In order to leave a hostile living environment, people may place the well-being and safety of another over their own needs, in effect placing themselves at risk. An animal would fight for its own survival above all else, but humans can and do acts of heroism that directly contradict their own self-interest.

Our own basic needs motivate us, but sometimes the basic needs of others are more important to us than our own.

We seek affection from others once we have the basics to live and feel safe from immediate danger. We look for a sense of love and belonging 3. This is an important step that directly relates to business communication. If a person feels safe at your place of business, they are more likely to be open to communication. Communication is the foundation of the business relationship, and without it, you will fail. If they feel on edge, or that they might be pushed around, made to feel stupid, or even unwanted, they will leave and your business will disappear.

On the other hand, if you make them feel welcome, provide multiple ways for them to learn, educate themselves, and ask questions in a safe environment, you will form relationships that transcend business and invite success. Once we have been integrated in a group, we begin to assert our sense of self and self-respect, addressing our need for self-esteem 4. Self-esteem is essentially how we feel about ourselves.

They certainly turned it into an opportunity. Each Saturday around the country, home repair clinics on all sorts of tasks, from cutting and laying tile to building a bird house, are available free to customers at Home Depot stores. You can participate, learn, gain mastery of a skill set, and walk out of the store with all the supplies you need to get the job done.

You will also now know someone the instructor, a Home Depot employee whom you can return to for follow-up questions. This model reinforces safety and familiarity, belonging to a group or perceiving a trustworthy support system, and the freedom to make mistakes.

Maslow discusses the next level of needs in terms of how we feel about ourselves and our ability to assert control and influence over our lives. Once we are part of a group and have begun to assert ourselves, we start to feel as if we have reached our potential and are actively making a difference in our own world.

Maslow calls this self-actualization 5. Self-actualization can involve reaching your full potential, feeling accepted for who you are, and perceiving a degree of control or empowerment in your environment. It may mean the freedom to go beyond building the bird house to the tree house, and to design it yourself as an example of self-expression.

As we progress beyond these levels, our basic human curiosity about the world around us emerges. When we have our basic needs met, we do not need to fear losing our place in a group or access to resources. We are free to explore and play, discovering the world around us. Our need to know 6 motivates us to grow and learn. You may have taken an elective art class that sparked your interest in a new area, or your started a new sport or hobby, like woodworking.

If you worked at low-paying jobs that earned you barely enough to meet your basic needs, you may not be able to explore all your interests. You might be too exhausted after sixty or seventy hours a week on a combination of the night shift and the early morning shift across two jobs.

Want to read a good book? Want to take a watercolor class? Sounds interesting. If, however, we are too busy hunting and gathering food, there is little time for contemplating beauty. Beyond curiosity lies the aesthetic need to experience beauty 7.

The appreciation of beauty transcends the everyday, the usual; it becomes exceptional. You may have walked in a building or church and become captivated by the light, the stained-glass windows, or the design. As we increase our degree of interconnectedness with others, we become interdependent and, at the same time, begin to express independence and individuality.

As a speaker, you may seek the safety of the familiar, only to progress with time and practice to a point where you make words your own. Your audience will share with you a need for control.

The introduction will set up audience expectations of points you will consider, and allow the audience to see briefly what is coming. The field of communication draws from many disciplines, and in this case, draws lessons from two prominent social psychologists. Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor articulated the social penetration theory , which describes how we move from superficial talk to intimate and revealing talk Altman, I.

Altman and Taylor discuss how we attempt to learn about others so that we can better understand how to interact Altman, I. With a better understanding of others and with more information, we are in a better position to predict how they may behave, what they may value, or what they might feel in specific situations. We usually gain this understanding of others without thinking about it through observation or self-disclosure. We come to know more about the way a person perceives a situation breadth , but also gain perspective into how they see the situation through an understanding of their previous experiences depth.

Imagine these two spheres, which represent people, coming together. What touches first? The superficial level. As the two start to overlap, the personal levels may touch, then the intimate level, and finally the core levels may even touch. Have you ever known a couple—perhaps your parents or grandparents—who have been together for a very long time? They might represent the near overlap, where their core values, attitudes, and beliefs are similar through a lifetime of shared experiences.

We move from public to private information as we progress from small talk to intimate conversations. Imagine an onion. The outer surface can be peeled away, and each new layer reveals another until you arrive at the heart of the onion.

People interact on the surface, and only remove layers as trust and confidence grows. Another way to look at it is to imagine an iceberg. How much of the total iceberg can you see from the surface of the ocean?

Not much. But once you start to look under the water, you gain an understanding of the large size of the iceberg, and the extent of its depth. We have to go beyond superficial understanding to know each other, and progress through the process of self-disclosure to come to know and understand one another. See Figure This model has existed in several forms since the s, and serves as a useful illustration of how little we perceive of each other with our first impressions and general assumptions.

We are motivated to communicate in order to gain information, get to know one another, better understand our situation or context, come to know ourselves and our role or identity, and meet our fundamental interpersonal needs.

What comes to mind when you think of speaking to persuade? Perhaps the idea of persuasion may bring to mind propaganda and issues of manipulation, deception, intentional bias, bribery, and even coercion.

Each element relates to persuasion, but in distinct ways. In a democratic society, we would hope that our Bill of Rights is intact and validated, and that we would support the exercise of freedom to discuss, consider and debate issues when considering change. We can recognize that each of these elements in some ways has a negative connotation associated with it.

Why do you think that deceiving your audience, bribing a judge, or coercing people to do something against their wishes is wrong? These tactics violate our sense of fairness, freedom, and ethics. Your audience expects you to treat them with respect, and deliberately manipulating them by means of fear, guilt, duty, or a relationship is unethical.

In the same way, deception involves the use of lies, partial truths, or the omission of relevant information to deceive your audience. No one likes to be lied to, or made to believe something that is not true.

Deception can involve intentional bias, or the selection of information to support your position while framing negatively any information that might challenge your belief. Bribery involves the giving of something in return for an expected favor, consideration, or privilege. It circumvents the normal protocol for personal gain, and again is a strategy that misleads your audience.

Coercion is the use of power to compel action. You make someone do something they would not choose to do freely. As Martin Luther King Jr. They are just two wrongs and violate the ethics that contribute to community and healthy relationships. Each issue certainly relates to persuasion, but you as the speaker should be aware of each in order to present an ethical persuasive speech. Learn to recognize when others try to use these tactics on you, and know that your audience will be watching to see if you try any of these strategies on them.

His main points reiterate many of the points across this chapter and should be kept in mind as you prepare, and present, your persuasive message. Aristotle said the mark of a good person, well spoken was a clear command of the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. He discussed the idea of perceiving the many points of view related to a topic, and their thoughtful consideration.

In your speech to persuade, consider honesty and integrity as you assemble your arguments. Your audience will appreciate your thoughtful consideration of more than one view, your understanding of the complexity, and you will build your ethos, or credibility, as you present your document.

Be careful not to stretch the facts, or assemble them only to prove yourself, and instead prove the argument on its own merits. Deception, coercion, intentional bias, manipulation and bribery should have no place in your speech to persuade. Fallacies are another way of saying false logic.

These rhetorical tricks deceive your audience with their style, drama, or pattern, but add little to your speech in terms of substance and can actually detract from your effectiveness. Here we will examine the eight classical fallacies. You may note that some of them relate to the ethical cautions listed earlier in this section. Eight common fallacies are presented in Table Avoid false logic and make a strong case or argument for your proposition.

Finally, here is a five-step motivational checklist to keep in mind as you bring it all together:. This simple organizational pattern can help you focus on the basic elements of a persuasive message when time is short and your performance is critical.

Speaking to persuade should not involve manipulation, coercion, false logic, or other unethical techniques. An elevator speech is to oral communication what a Twitter message limited to characters is to written communication.

An elevator speech is a presentation that persuades the listener in less than thirty seconds, or around a hundred words. It takes its name from the idea that in a short elevator ride of perhaps ten floors , carefully chosen words can make a difference.

In addition to actual conversations taking place during elevator rides, other common examples include the following:. An elevator speech does not have to be a formal event, though it can be. An elevator speech is not a full sales pitch and should not get bloated with too much information. The speech can be generic and nonspecific to the audience or listener, but the more you know about your audience, the better.

When you tailor your message to that audience, you zero in on your target and increase your effectiveness Albertson, E. The emphasis is on brevity, but a good elevator speech will address several key questions:. Albertson, E. How to open doors with a brilliant elevator speech.

New Providence, NJ: R. Howell, L. Give your elevator speech a lift. Bothell, WA: Publishers Network. Altman, I. Social penetration: The development of interpersonal relationships. New York, NY: St. Maslow, A. Motivation and personality 2nd ed. Covino, W. Rhetoric: Concepts, definitions, boundaries. Body image and nutrition: Fast facts. Teen Health and the Media. Brumberg, J. The body project: An intimate history of American girls. DuRant, R. Tobacco and alcohol use behaviors portrayed in music videos: Content analysis.

American Journal of Public Health, 87 , — Hofschire, L. Brown, J. Walsh-Childers Eds. Huston, A. Big world, small screen: The role of television in American society. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Raimondo, M. About-face facts on the media. Ship, J. Tiggemann, M. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20 , — A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart [3] [4] that illustrates a project schedule.

Terminal elements and summary elements constitute the work breakdown structure of the project. Modern Gantt charts also show the dependency i.

Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percent-complete shadings and a vertical "TODAY" line as shown here. Gantt charts are usually created initially using an early start time approach , where each task is scheduled to start immediately when its prerequisites are complete. This method maximizes the float time available for all tasks.

In , Gantt charts were identified as "one of the most widely used management tools for project scheduling and control". In the following table there are seven tasks, labeled a through g.

Some tasks can be done concurrently a and b while others cannot be done until their predecessor task is complete c and d cannot begin until a is complete. Additionally, each task has three time estimates: the optimistic time estimate O , the most likely or normal time estimate M , and the pessimistic time estimate P. The expected time T E is estimated. A vertical line is drawn at the time index when the progress Gantt chart is created, and this line can then be compared with shaded tasks.

If everything is on schedule, all task portions left of the line will be shaded, and all task portions right of the line will not be shaded. This provides a visual representation of how the project and its tasks are ahead or behind schedule. Once I ran across something in a book that really agitated me. The volume presented lists of ideas for living a happy and fulfilled life. All those ideas seemed reasonable to me. In education, business, and the military meetings dominate the way many groups operate in American society.

Estimates of the number of meetings that take place every day in our country range from 11 million to more than 30 million 1. One authority claims that the average chief executive officer spends 17 hours per week in meetings, whereas the average senior executive spends 23 hours per week 2.

If the average number of people in each of these meetings is only five and the average meeting lasts only one hour, this means that between 55,, and ,, person-hours each day are being consumed by meetings. Assuming a week work year, then, the total time devoted to meetings each year amounts to at least fifteen billion person-hours. Like any other course of action, the process of engaging in meetings has a beginning, a middle, and an end.

Aller Anfang ist schwer. Office equipment and supplies constitute tools to support the work of most modern groups such as student teams in college classes, employees and executives in businesses, and collections of people in other organizations. None of those groups would say, however, that using copy machines and staplers is one of their goals. And none of them would visit a copy machine unless they had something they needed to reproduce. Meetings resemble office supplies in at least one way: they can help a group accomplish its goals.

When deciding if you should meet, first consider if the group operating well. The group probably adopted goals for itself. It may even have ranked those goals in order of importance. Members of a student team might, for example, decide that their joint goals are to earn a high grade on their group project, to have fun together, and to ensure that all of them can secure a positive recommendation from the instructor when they look for a job after graduation.

You should not meet until and unless doing so clearly contributes to a goal of your group. To this end, you may want to create a list of basic obligations you feel everyone should fulfill with respect to all meetings.

These obligations might include the following items:. Write the goals down. Reread them. Let them sit a while. If you calculate that the people you plan to invite to your meeting constitute larger than a two-pizza group, ask yourself if all of them really, really, really need to be there.

For each item, name the individual in charge of it, indicate whether it will require action by the group, and provide an estimated duration. Strive to cut down on how long you spend to handle each item on your agenda as much as you can so that members of your group can get back to their other responsibilities as soon as possible. A shorter-than-expected meeting is usually a thing of joy. If you have a choice, plan to gather in a place with plenty of light, comfortable furniture, and a minimum of distracting sounds or sights.

You should be able to adjust the temperature, too, if people get too hot or cold. Even if you expect to ha. Make sure the participants receive the agenda. Two reminders per meeting may be enough—one by letter and one by e-mail, for instance—but three are better, including one the day before the meeting itself.

In fact, the president actually ran practice meetings with the board to make sure there would be no surprises when the real meetings took place. You should practice, too, at gently, repeatedly, and clearly notifying other group members of the time and agenda of each meeting. With online tools such as mapquest. Arrive early. Rooms sometimes get double-booked, furniture sometimes gets rearranged, technological tools such as LCD projectors and laptop computers sometimes break down or get taken away to be repaired, and so on and on.

Preparing for group meetings well takes you a third of the way toward ensuring their productivity, and follow-up takes care of another third. The middle third of the process is to run the meetings efficiently.

Facilitating a meeting requires care, vigilance, flexibility, resilience, humility, and humor. In a way, to run a meeting effectively calls someone to act the way a skilled athletic coach does, watching the action, calling plays, and encouraging good performance. Finally, like a coach, you sometimes need to call timeouts—breaks—when people are weary or the action is starting to get raggedy or undisciplined.

First of all, she makes it a point to become familiar with not only the issues and topics to be dealt with in a meeting, but also the personalities, strengths, and foibles of the other people who will be participating. Although she behaves in a warm and friendly manner at all times during a meeting, she never veers off into extraneous or superfluous details just for the sake of being sociable.

Because she attends closely to every interaction in a meeting and takes the time in advance to become familiar with the styles and proclivities of participants, Bonnie prevents discussions from getting off track. In fact, she has an uncanny knack of being able to spot a train of discussion that might even just be getting ready to go off track so that she can nudge it safely around bends and down slippery slopes.

Furthermore, she seems to always know exactly what questions to ask, and to whom, to elicit concise, purposeful information which helps the group keep moving in the proper direction. Bonnie is totally efficient and systematic in her pacing and wastes no time from the moment a meeting begins to the moment it ends…or afterward, either. When the meeting ends, the event will be planned and you will be feeling good about yourself, about the meeting itself, and about the future of the group.

Unfortunately, many people lack the skills of our friend Bonnie. As a result, a variety of negative results can take place as they fail to act capably as meeting facilitators. Guidelines for Facilitating a Meeting Many authorities have recommended actions and attitudes which can help you facilitate a meeting well. Some time, calculate the cost to your group—even at minimum-wage rates—for the minutes its members sit around waiting for meetings to begin.

Face it: no matter what you do, many people in your group would probably rather be somewhere else than in a meeting. City Year begins its meetings by inviting members to describe from their own recent life experiences an example of what Robert F. Sharing with their fellow group members such examples of altruism, love, or community improvement focuses and motivates City Year members by reminding them in specific, personal terms of why their meetings can be truly worthwhile.

Once you convene your meeting, announce or remind the group members of where they can find rest rooms, water fountains, vending machines, designated smoking areas, and any other amenities that may contribute to their physical comfort.

Social time makes people happy and relieves stress. Most group meetings, however, should not consist primarily of social time. As the facilitator, you should do your best to identify such change and accommodate it within the structures and processes your group has established for itself. I get the impression that people might have some questions for you.

Unless they are held purely to communicate information, or for other special purposes, most meetings result in action items, tasks, and other assignments for one or more participants. Sometimes these items arise unexpectedly because someone comes up with a great new idea and volunteers or is assigned to pursue it after the discussion ends.

Be on the alert for these elements of a meeting. Encourage humor and merriment. Something similar can arise in a meeting. Taking even five-minute breathers at set intervals can help group members remain physically refreshed over the long haul. Seek consensus. Observe the Golden Rule. If you must criticize, criticize positions, not people. Be specific in stating what you expect the person to do or stop doing, and keep an open mind to whatever response you receive. Do your best to anticipate and prepare for confrontations and conflicts.

Formative assessment takes place during an activity and allows people to modify their behavior in response to its results. Summative assessment is implemented at the end of an activity. When you finish a meeting, for example, you might check to see how well people feel that the gathering met its intended goals. If you feel a less formal check-up is sufficient, you might just go around the table or room and ask every person for one word that captures how she or he feels.

Meetings conducted via Skype or other synchronous technological tools can function as efficiently as face-to-face ones, but only if the distinctive challenges of the virtual environment are taken into account.

To make it more likely that a virtual meeting will be both pleasant and productive, then, it makes sense to tell people up front what your expectations are of their behavior. If you want them to avoid reading email or playing computer solitaire on their computers while the meeting is underway, for example, say so.

A major goal of most meetings is to reach decisions based on maximum involvement, so it pays to keep in mind that people work best with other people whom they know and understand. With this in mind, you might choose to email a photo of each person scheduled to be in the meeting and include a quick biography for everyone to look over in advance.

Here are some further tips and suggestions for leading or participating in virtual meetings, each based on the unique features of such gatherings:. That is, the purpose is to preserve order, decorum, and civility so that a group can make wise decisions.

It attempts to accomplish this by allowing members of a group to refer to each other in the third person—e. On a very practical level, parliamentary procedure can help you answer these common, important questions as you lead a meeting:. Learning some parliamentary procedure promises at least two personal benefits, as well. Such agendas, if and when they are approved by groups at the outset of their meetings, may be individualized to name the persons who are to give reports and make recommendations.

They may also include timelines that refer to specific topics, offer background information, and say when breaks will take place. RONR recognizes that every group has a personality of its own and should have the flexibility to express that personality through a well-crafted agenda tailored to meet its needs.

Bookends hold books up. Without them, the books tumble onto each other or off the shelf. A college administrator we know developed a form to give people after any conversation they had in his office, much less a formal meeting.

He would take notes on the form of what he and the other people in the conversation said, and especially of what they agreed or disagreed on at the end of their meeting. Then he would share the notes with the other people, make a photocopy for each, and have them all initial their copies.

Because the administrator knew that busy people may quickly forget exactly what they decided in a conversation.

Our individual impressions of a meeting start changing the moment we leave the site. Why are we going over the same ground again? The way to prevent such deflating episodes is by following up after meetings with good records. Here are two ways to do this:. Its contents are brief, easy to read, and very difficult to misinterpret or evade. It promotes action and accountability.

Distribute minutes promptly. When and how you disseminate minutes shows whether and how much you care about what your group does. Make sure your mailing list of people to receive minutes is up to date and accurate. In this chapter we have reviewed mechanisms and approaches to handling meetings.

We have explored the purposes of meetings and discovered that alternatives to meetings can often yield satisfactory results within a group. Meetings play a large role in the life and development of most groups, so acquiring tools for putting meetings to the best possible use can be of great value to their members.

How to make meetings work: The new interaction method. New York: Jove Books. Meetings and more meetings: The relationship between meeting load and the daily well-being of employees.

Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 9 1 , 58— Task skills and competence in group leadership. Communicating in groups and teams: Sharing leadership 4thed.

Meeting excellence: 33 tools to lead meetings that get results. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Robert's Rules of Order in Brief. Bloomberg Businessweek , 51— Mosvick, R. A guide to successful meeting management. Indianapolis, IN: Park Avenue. Includes information about business meetings, along with suggestions on how to improve them.

Silberman, M. Provides fun activities and exercises to help prepare people to conduct meetings effectively. Streibel, B. New York: McGraw-Hill. Includes advice on conducting virtual meetings, as well as useful examples and checklists related to meeting management.

Facilitation at a Glance ; Ingred Bens. A wonderful pocket guide to facilitation, filled with tools and techniques useful to both novice and advanced facilitators. Great set of tools for problem solving.

An excellent resource for ideas on facilitation, with a focus on decision-making tools and techniques. The book includes excellent illustrations, which can be reproduced to help explain facilitation concepts to others. The IAF promotes, supports and advances the art and practice of professional facilitation through methods exchange, professional growth, practical research, collegial networking and support services. Interaction Associates. The Tips and Techniques section at their Web site is particularly useful.

After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:. Describe organizational culture and why it is important for an organization. Distinguish between weak and strong cultures. Understand factors that create culture. Understand how to change culture.

Understand how organizational culture and ethics relate. Understand cross-cultural differences in organizational culture. Just like individuals, you can think of organizations as having their own personalities, more typically known as organizational cultures. The opening case illustrates that Nordstrom is a retailer with the foremost value of making customers happy.

At Nordstrom, when a customer is unhappy, employees are expected to identify what would make the person satisfied, and then act on it, without necessarily checking with a superior or consulting a lengthy policy book.

If they do not, they receive peer pressure and may be made to feel that they let the company down. In other words, this organization seems to have successfully created a service culture. Understanding how culture is created, communicated, and changed will help you be more effective in your organizational life. Nordstrom Inc. Nordstrom is known for its quality apparel, upscale environment, and generous employee rewards. However, what Nordstrom is most famous for is its delivery of customer service above and beyond the norms of the retail industry.

Stories about Nordstrom service abound. For example, according to one story the company confirms, in Nordstrom moved into a new location that had formerly been a tire store. A customer brought a set of tires into the store to return them. Without a word about the mix-up, the tires were accepted, and the customer was fully refunded the purchase price. In a different story, a customer tried on several pairs of shoes but failed to find the right combination of size and color.

The sales associate took his measurements just in case one was found. The next day, the customer got a phone call, informing him that the tux was available. When pressed, she revealed that using her connections she found one in New York, had it put on a truck destined to Chicago, and dispatched someone to meet the truck in Chicago at a rest stop.

What is even more impressive about this story is that Nordstrom does not sell Armani tuxedos. How does Nordstrom persist in creating these stories? On one side of the card, the company welcomes employees to Nordstrom and states that their number one goal is to provide outstanding customer service, and for this they have only one rule. Based on information from Chatman, J. Leading by leveraging culture.

The Nordstrom way to customer service excellence: A handbook for implementing great service in your organization. Producing sustainable competitive advantage through the effective management of people. Academy of Management Executive, 19 , 95— These values have a strong influence on employee behavior as well as organizational performance.

Since then, organizational culture has become the subject of numerous research studies, books, and articles. However, organizational culture is still a relatively new concept. In contrast to a topic such as leadership, which has a history spanning several centuries, organizational culture is a young but fast-growing area within organizational behavior.

Culture is by and large invisible to individuals. If you have worked in multiple organizations, you can attest to this. Maybe the first organization you worked was a place where employees dressed formally.

It was completely inappropriate to question your boss in a meeting; such behaviors would only be acceptable in private. It was important to check your e-mail at night as well as during weekends or else you would face questions on Monday about where you were and whether you were sick. Contrast this company to a second organization where employees dress more casually. You are encouraged to raise issues and question your boss or peers, even in front of clients.

What is more important is not to maintain impressions but to arrive at the best solution to any problem. It is widely known that family life is very important, so it is acceptable to leave work a bit early to go to a family event. Additionally, you are not expected to do work at night or over the weekends unless there is a deadline. These two hypothetical organizations illustrate that organizations have different cultures, and culture dictates what is right and what is acceptable behavior as well as what is wrong and unacceptable.

In fact, it has been argued that organizations that have a rare and hard-to-imitate organizational culture benefit from it as a competitive advantage Barney, Culture, or shared values within the organization , may be related to increased performance.

For example, if a company is in the high-tech industry, having a culture that encourages innovativeness and adaptability will support its performance. However, if a company in the same industry has a culture characterized by stability, a high respect for tradition, and a strong preference for upholding rules and procedures, the company may suffer as a result of its culture.

In addition to having implications for organizational performance, organizational culture is an effective control mechanism for dictating employee behavior. Culture is in fact a more powerful way of controlling and managing employee behaviors than organizational rules and regulations. When problems are unique, rules tend to be less helpful. Instead, creating a culture of customer service achieves the same result by encouraging employees to think like customers, knowing that the company priorities in this case are clear: Keeping the customer happy is preferable to other concerns such as saving the cost of a refund.

Organizational culture can be thought of as consisting of three interrelated levels Schein, At the deepest level, below our awareness lie basic assumptions.

Assumptions are taken for granted, and they reflect beliefs about human nature and reality. At the second level, values exist. Values are shared principles, standards, and goals. Finally, at the surface we have artifacts , or visible, tangible aspects of organizational culture.

For example, in an organization one of the basic assumptions employees and managers share might be that happy employees benefit their organizations. This assumption could translate into values such as social equality, high quality relationships, and having fun. For example, Alcoa Inc. However, simply looking at these tangible aspects is unlikely to give a full picture of the organization.

Organizational culture is a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that help individuals within an organization understand which behaviors are and are not appropriate within an organization. Cultures can be a source of competitive advantage for organizations. Strong organizational cultures can be an organizing as well as a controlling mechanism for organizations. And finally, organizational culture consists of three levels: assumptions, which are below the surface, values, and artifacts.

In other words, if most employees in the organization show consensus regarding the values of the company, it is possible to talk about the existence of a strong culture.

It is important to realize that a strong culture may act as an asset or liability for the organization, depending on the types of values that are shared. For example, imagine a company with a culture that is strongly outcome oriented. If this value system matches the organizational environment, the company outperforms its competitors.

An extreme example of this dysfunctional type of strong culture is Enron. A strong culture may sometimes outperform a weak culture because of the consistency of expectations. In a strong culture, members know what is expected of them, and the culture serves as an effective control mechanism on member behaviors. Research shows that strong cultures lead to more stable corporate performance in stable environments. However, in volatile environments, the advantages of culture strength disappear Sorensen One limitation of a strong culture is the difficulty of changing a strong culture.

If an organization with widely shared beliefs decides to adopt a different set of values, unlearning the old values and learning the new ones will be a challenge, because employees will need to adopt new ways of thinking, behaving, and responding to critical events. For example, the Home Depot Inc. When Robert Nardelli became CEO of the company in , he decided to change its culture, starting with centralizing many of the decisions that were previously left to individual stores.

This initiative met with substantial resistance, and many high-level employees left during his first year. Despite getting financial results such as doubling the sales of the company, many of the changes he made were criticized. A strong culture may also be a liability during a merger. During mergers and acquisitions, companies inevitably experience a clash of cultures, as well as a clash of structures and operating systems. Culture clash becomes more problematic if both parties have unique and strong cultures.

Daimler had a strong engineering culture that was more hierarchical and emphasized routinely working long hours. Daimler employees were used to being part of an elite organization, evidenced by flying first class on all business trips. On the other hand, Chrysler had a sales culture where employees and managers were used to autonomy, working shorter hours, and adhering to budget limits that meant only the elite flew first class. So far, we have assumed that a company has a single culture that is shared throughout the organization.

However, you may have realized that this is an oversimplification. In reality there might be multiple cultures within any given organization. For example, people working on the sales floor may experience a different culture from that experienced by people working in the warehouse. A culture that emerges within different departments, branches, or geographic locations is called a subculture.

Subcultures may arise from the personal characteristics of employees and managers, as well as the different conditions under which work is performed. Within the same organization, marketing and manufacturing departments often have different cultures such that the marketing department may emphasize innovativeness, whereas the manufacturing department may have a shared emphasis on detail orientation.

In an interesting study, researchers uncovered five different subcultures within a single police organization. Sometimes, a subculture may take the form of a counterculture.

For example, within a largely bureaucratic organization, an enclave of innovativeness and risk taking may emerge within a single department. A counterculture may be tolerated by the organization as long as it is bringing in results and contributing positively to the effectiveness of the organization.

However, its existence may be perceived as a threat to the broader organizational culture. In some cases this may lead to actions that would take away the autonomy of the managers and eliminate the counterculture. Culture can be understood in terms of seven different culture dimensions, depending on what is most emphasized within the organization. For example, innovative cultures are flexible and adaptable, and they experiment with new ideas, while stable cultures are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic.

Strong cultures can be an asset or a liability for an organization but can be challenging to change. Organizations may have subcultures and countercultures, which can be challenging to manage. Where do cultures come from? Understanding this question is important so that you know how they can be changed.

These values and ways of doing business are taught to new members as the way to do business Schein, As a company matures, its cultural values are refined and strengthened. It is possible to think of organizational culture as an organism that protects itself from external forces. Organizational culture determines what types of people are hired by an organization and what types are left out.

Moreover, once new employees are hired, the company assimilates new employees and teaches them the way things are done in the organization. We call these processes attraction-selection-attrition and onboarding processes. It is important to remember two points: The process of culture creation is in fact more complex and less clean than the name implies. Additionally, the influence of each factor on culture creation is reciprocal.

For example, just as leaders may influence what type of values the company has, the culture may also determine what types of behaviors leaders demonstrate. Organizational culture is maintained through a process known as attraction-selection-attrition. First, employees are attracted to organizations where they will fit in. In other words, different job applicants will find different cultures to be attractive.

Someone who has a competitive nature may feel comfortable and prefer to work in a company where interpersonal competition is the norm. Others may prefer to work in a team-oriented workplace.

Research shows that employees with different personality traits find different cultures attractive. As a result, individuals will self-select the companies they work for and may stay away from companies that have core values that are radically different from their own.

Of course this process is imperfect, and value similarity is only one reason a candidate might be attracted to a company. There may be other, more powerful attractions such as good benefits. For example, candidates who are potential misfits may still be attracted to Google because of the cool perks associated with being a Google employee. At this point in the process, the second component of the ASA framework prevents them from getting in: Selection.

Just as candidates are looking for places where they will fit in, companies are also looking for people who will fit into their current corporate culture. Many companies are hiring people for fit with their culture, as opposed to fit with a certain job.

For example, Southwest Airlines prides itself for hiring employees based on personality and attitude rather than specific job-related skills, which are learned after being hired. This is important for job applicants to know, because in addition to highlighting your job-relevant skills, you will need to discuss why your personality and values match those of the company.

Companies use different techniques to weed out candidates who do not fit with corporate values. For example, Google relies on multiple interviews with future peers. By introducing the candidate to several future coworkers and learning what these coworkers think of the candidate, it becomes easier to assess the level of fit. The Container Store Inc. Companies may also use employee referrals in their recruitment process. By using their current employees as a source of future employees, companies may make sure that the newly hired employees go through a screening process to avoid potential person-culture mismatch.

Even after a company selects people for person-organization fit, there may be new employees who do not fit in. Moreover, recruiters may suffer from perceptual biases and hire some candidates thinking that they fit with the culture even though the actual fit is low. In any event, the organization is going to eventually eliminate candidates who do not fit in through attrition.

Attrition refers to the natural process in which the candidates who do not fit in will leave the company. Texas Instruments Inc. As a result of the ASA process, the company attracts, selects, and retains people who share its core values.

On the other hand, those people who are different in core values will be excluded from the organization either during the hiring process or later on through naturally occurring turnover. Thus, organizational culture will act as a self-defending organism where intrusive elements are kept out. Onboarding refers to the process through which new employees learn the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors required to function effectively within an organization.

This understanding and confidence in turn translate into more effective new employees who perform better and have higher job satisfaction, stronger organizational commitment, and longer tenure within the company Bauer et al. There are many factors that play a role in the successful adjustment of new employees. New employees can engage in several activities to help increase their own chances of success at a new organization. Organizations also engage in different activities, such as implementing orientation programs or matching new employees with mentors, which may facilitate onboarding.

Sources: Adapted from ideas in Couzins, M. How to…survive the first six months of a new job. Personnel Today , 27; Wahlgreen, E. Getting up to speed at a new job. Hate running around your shop whenever you need a tool? Boy, do we have the bench for you…. Wedged-Base Workbench Tablesaw joinery locks it together. By Tim Johnson This workbench has a top ready for hard use.

The interlocking joinery, with its dovetails and wedges, is rock solid, yet it knocks down quickly for moving. Although it looks complicated, the base is surprisingly easy to….

By Randy Johnson and Luke Hartle In our shop, we used to pile tools, parts and hardware on top of a wobbly workbench made from 2x4s. When we had to glue a project together, we shoved everything aside. Finally, we…. Wooden Bar Clamps Shop-made clamps that deliver versatility and performance. By Dave Olson End your clamp shortage once and for all.

These wooden clamps are easy to make, a joy to use and they exert plenty of clamping pressure. If you build them with scrap lumber, they cost less than half the cost of a…. Modular Shop Cabinets Euro-style construction makes them easy to build, easy to customize. By Bruce Kieffer In days gone by, apprentice cabinetmakers used to build their own tool chests. These modular shop cabinets function…. Double-Duty Shop Stool It's all plywood, and only uses a half sheet.

By Eric Smith A combination stool and work support? Anything that takes up less room is a good idea! Hardworking Horse and Cart?? Two great additions to any small shop. By Randy Johnson Do you spend a lot of time stacking, storing and pushing stuff around your small shop just to make room for the next phase of your project?

Here are a couple of no-nonsense shop helpers that can make your small shop…. Plumb Your Shop with Air Flexible hose saves time and money By Richard Tendick Moments after I tripped over the air hose and dropped an armload of boards, I decided it was time to plumb my shop for air.

I was tired of having 50 ft. Dovetailed Tool Box Fill it, carry it, bang it around: These joints will last forever. By Seth Keller A lightweight, sturdy toolbox is perfect for odd jobs around the house. Carpenters used to make their own, just nailed together. You may also like… Drill…. I love commercially made multiple-tip screwdrivers because they cut down on the clutter in my tool drawers.

Mobile Outfeed Tables Upgrade your tablesaw and save precious shop space with a pair of outfeed tables. When edges are perfect, these tools sing in your hands. Small Parts Carousel Put a spin on storing shop necessities. By Jeff Timm Here's a way to store all that indispensable small stuff that clutters your workshop. Based on a rotating bolt cabinet from an old-fashioned hardware store, this re-design rotates on inverted swivel casters.

Bandsaw Fence Our fence shines where commercial models fall short. By Richard Tendick Every bandsaw deserves a good fence. After all, a bandsaw is capable of doing much more than cutting curves. With a well-designed fence, you can accurately resaw boards into thinner pieces, rip warped rough lumber without worrying about kickback and precisely cut….

This is a model of a drill press table from the April Issue. Anyone who has glued up a few doors knows how frustrating it can be attempting to build assemblies that turn out both flat and square.

Last Friday afternoon we moved tons of stuff literally to our new shop and managed to get most of the big stuff set in place by the end of the day. The photo here will show you how things are shaping up and you can click on the photo to enlarge it for a better…. Ajax Alexandre. You can bring this CD right into the shop on your laptop computer and build these innovative and ingenious jigs!

Cut accurate joints in less time. Make safety a priority in the shop. Jigs are your…. That may be a slight exaggeration as I, for one, still enjoy turning pages. However, there is no doubt that whatever the future holds, we will be consuming information in many new forms — and…. Last winter, I was puzzling out a way to make edge joints that are just the opposite of what we normally want — perfectly straight.

I wanted free-flowing curves and I wanted to join contrasting colors of wood species. So the question was how to match the two joint lines on the different pieces of…. For this collection, we looked through all the issues of Popular Woodworking from the last 12 years, and all our issues of Woodworking Magazine, to select…. Hyperorganize Your Shop A hook-and-slat wall system puts everything at your fingertips. Recently my neighbor remodeled his garage using a commercial wall-slat system.

That gave me an idea for designing my own system. Giant Shop Cabinet Organize tons and tons of woodworking supplies with room to spare. By Tim Johnson If your workshop seems cluttered and your workbench is always covered with stuff, you need this cabinet.

It packs 30 cubic ft. Everything is readily…. By Seth Keller Building a steam box for bending wood only requires exterior-grade plywood, waterproof glue and an electric tea kettle. I bought my kettle from Lee Valley see Source, below. It came with an aluminum pipe to…. Heavy-Duty Folding Shop Table You can build this workhorse in a day, using little more than a tablesaw, jigsaw, hacksaw and a drill. By Tom Caspar Need more bench space? And we mean strong.

You can set it up in only a…. Big Capacity Storage Cabinet Restaurant storage tubs organize shop supplies for stow and go. By Dave Olson When I worked in a restaurant as a teenager, I hauled dirty dishes in plastic bus boxes.

Using them to organize my shop is much more pleasant. Bus boxes are light in weight and strong enough to hold…. This is a model of a foot-powered lathe with a scroll saw attachment that was featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking Magazine.

This is a model of a tool chest featured on the cover of the June issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a wooden square that was featured in an article in the December issue of Popular Woodworking Magazine. This is a model of a birdhouse that was featured in an article in the August issue of Popular Woodworking Magazine. This is a model of a router table featured in the Jig Journal column of the June issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

This is a model of a turned stool that was featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a hand plane cabinet that was featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

A good project will push your skills, and test your ability. The Chinese stool from the last issue of Woodworking Magazine is by all measures a great project. It looks simple, but a close…. This is a model of a drill press workstation that was featured in an article in the June issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a stand for a benchtop router table that was featured in an article in the June issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

This is a model of a multi-purpose support stand featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a hand saw storage till featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a box for storing inch table saw blades that was featured in an article in the June issue of Poular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a drill press table featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

This is a model of a miter saw stand feature in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a mobile tool box featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a portable tool rack featured in an article in the December issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

This is a model of a table saw tapering jig featured in an article in the February issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This miter saw work station was featured in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

Each project builds on the skill learned in the preceding chapter. This process makes for an easy and fun learning curve. One of the more attractive project tools…. Every now and then I get a question from a reader about the tool rack that hangs in the window of our shop behind my workbench. The rack in question was originally made in May for an article in Issue 8 of Woodworking Magazine.

Chris Schwarz made…. Article Index. Get extra outfeed space without sacrificing precious floor space. It worked great except for one thing: I had to flip two switches just to make one cut. The solution was simple. I bought a power strip,with keyholes for…. Next-Generation Router Table Make more accurate cuts with a flat, solid-surface top.

By John English 9 Key Features 1. Hinged Top. Bit changes are much easier. Pivot Control. Tall Fence. Solid-Surface Top. And extra-wide or figured wood is practically beyond reach. There are ways to use less oil, but…. All of your tablesaw accessories close at hand by Eric Smith The last time I could find them all, I counted 18 accessories for my tablesaw.

The problem is finding a convenient,…. It involves making mortise-and-tenon joinery and raised panels, fitting a drawer to its cabinet, using mechanical drawer slides and setting them up to work in tandem rather than side by side in the usual manner. This newly redesigned router table is packing tons more storage space and sporting a totally overhauled chasis while retaining its cool running router carriage and dust collection system.

Drill Press Cabinet Turn wasted space into storage space. By Jean Bartholome In my cramped little shop, every square foot counts.

With that in mind I designed this cabinet to fit in the wasted space under the table of my floor-model drill press. The top drawer holds vertically all the twist bits and brad-point bits…. Tired of working on a sheet of plywood thrown over a pair of sawhorses?

Boy, do we have the bench for you. Our dream bench starts with traditional workbench features like a thick top, a…. Folding Outfeed Table Open, it supports 8-ft. By George Vondriska Roller stands are okay, but every saw really ought to have an outfeed table. It makes ripping lumber or plywood a lot more convenient and much safer. The bigger the table, the better. My bench grinder is out of the way but instantly accessible, thanks to this sturdy flip-up table. It works great and it's simple to make.

Build It 1. Clamp Caddy Maneuvering pipe clamps around my shop was a pain until I dreamed up this mobile carryall. It even has room for all of my C-clamps, hand screws and small adjustable clamps. Glue two pieces of…. Even with access to a nice table saw, cutting full sheets of plywood can be difficult.

Here is an alternate method I like to use to break down sheets to pieces of a more manageable size. When we last looked at my pile of 2 x 4s the readings from my moisture meter ranged from 10 percent to 18 percent.

Good price, but…. The Domino has several things in common with the biscuit joiner including a European heritage and a hefty price tag. The biscuit joiner has been around for a…. My style of working…. Jim Stuard. Your table saw is a router table and jointer just waiting to happen. This clever rolling stand allows you to make dead-on crosscuts, and then it folds up when not in use. Plus, you need only two sheets of plywood to build it. And that one back gets tired after years of lugging sheets of plywood around.

This 18th century English tool chest is one of the more interesting mysteries in the history of woodworking. It survived with almost all its tools intact — a major feat indeed. Drill presses are designed mostly for metalworking. This one is easy to make and store. Plastic sawhorses are OK in a pinch. However, once you build a sawbench you will wonder how you ever worked wood without it. This simple afternoon project is perfect for handsawing, holding doors for planing, organizing tools and giving you a leg up.

Nick Engler. You can set it up in only a minute and be ready for routing, sanding, planing—you name it. From ripsaw to crosscut, keep all your hand saws within easy reach. This tenon jig is used at the table saw, made from shop scraps and works as good as a commercial jig.

Build this jig and save money. How to Flatten a Workbench Top. Continue Reading. Feature Articles. Drill Press Table. Tricks of the Trade. Hanging Your Cordless Drills. Queen Anne Strop Box. Handmade Saw Cabinet. Texas Heritage Woodworks Saddle Bag. Simple Router Table. Shop-Made Rocker Jaw. Mobile Tool Wall. Knockdown Trestle Sawhorses. Ultimate Lathe Stand. Plywood Caddy. Hardware Storage Cabinet. Ginormous Shop Cabinet. Handyman Tool Belt.

A Bench for Kids. Router Bit Storage Case. Crosscut Sled Jigs. Table Saw MegaSled. Stacking Tool Caddy. Smooth Operator. Custom Push Pads.

Sharpening Pond. Traveling Tool Chest. Not so Ordinary Router Cabinet. The Butterfly Horse. CAM Marking Gauge. Portable Sawhorse Bench. Dovetail Station. English Layout Square. A Table for Your Trim Router. Distinctive Tool Cabinet. How to Build a Tenoning Sled. Tool Tote. Easy Tool Rack. Finishing Cabinet.

Self-Storing Mortiser Cabinet. Folding Bench. Mobile Toolbox. Tablesaw Tray. Wooden Router Plane. Small Shop Miter Station Stand. Bow Front Corner Cabinet. Radial Router Jig. The Amazing Elliptical Jig. A cradle for a Combination Square. Tool Storage. Six Small Shop Solutions. Six great ideas for space-challenged woodworkers to get more out of their small shops.

American Woodworker Blog. Shop Blog. Check out these cheap and easy ideas to make the most of your small shop space. Woodworking Blogs.

CNC Woodworking. Zero-Clearance Inserts. Bandsaw Resawing. My Traveling Tool Case. Shop Projects. Rolling Clamp Rack. Simple, Sturdy Sawhorses.

Shop Storage Perfect for the Small Workshop. Tools in Your Shop. Dust-Free Bandsaw — Tricks of the Trade. Hand Tools Techniques. All-in-one Cabinet — Small Shop Storage. Low Stakes Coffee Table. Power Tools. One-weekend Router Table. Tool Storage for the Rest of Us. Online Classes. Big Project, Crowded Woodshop.

Organizing a Woodshop in One Saturday. How to Build a Router Table, Quickly. Woodworking Daily Blog. Questions And Answers. Woodworking Classes. Garage Shop Layout for Maximum Efficiency. Shopmade Handscrews. Woodworking Gifts. Make Your Own Hand tools. Dream Workbench. Wedged-Base Workbench. Wooden Bar Clamps. Modular Shop Cabinets. Double-Duty Shop Stool. Hardworking Horse and Cart. Plumb Your Shop with Air. Dovetailed Tool Box. Mobile Outfeed Tables. Power Sharpening System. Small Parts Carousel.

Sawing Techniques. Bandsaw Fence. SketchUp Models. SketchUp Shop Projects. Drill Press Table from April Quick Jigs for Flat and Square Glue-ups. Our New Shop — Take a Look! Simple All-Purpose Shop Cabinets. Try Digital with a Free Project. Other Projects. Easy Curvaceous Edge Joints. Hyperorganize Your Shop. A Giant Shop Cabinet.

Simple Steam Box. Heavy-Duty Folding Shop Table. Joint Maker Sketchup Model. This is a model of a horizontal router table with a sliding table.

Cam Clamp Sketchup Model. A typical clamp used in woodworking. Double Screw Vise Sketchup Model. Wooden Square Skethcup Model. Jack Plane Birdhouse Sketchup Model. Toolbox Sketchup Model. SketchUp Traditional Furniture Projects. Shop Stool Sketchup Model. Hand Plane Cabinet Sketchup Model. Wooden Jack Plane Sketchup Model. This is a model of a wooden jack plane designed and constructed by Mario Rodruiguez.

Chinese Stool Challenge Class. Drill Press Workstation Sketchup Model. Benchtop Router Table Sketchup Model. Microadjustable Support Stand Sketchup Model. Jorgensen Pipe Clamp Sketchup Model. This is a model of a Jorgensen pipe clamp. Shop Box System Sketchup Model.

Bench Hook Sketchup Model. Rockler Clamp Sketchup Model. Rockler pipe clamp submitted by reader Jon Shackelford. Galoot Saw Till Sketchup Model. Saw Bench Sketchup Model. This is a model of a sawbench featured in an article in issue 6 of Woodworking magazine. Saw Blade Box Sketchup Model.

Mobile Clamp Cart Sketchup Model. This clamp storage cart was featured in the October issue of Popular Woodworking Magazine. This is a model of a project featured in the June issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. Scratch Beader Sketchup Model. Drill Press Table Sketchup Model.

German Work Box Sketchup Model. Chisel Rack Sketchup Model. Miter Saw Stand Sketchup Model. Woodworking Hand Tools. Building a Handmade Try Square.

August Popular Woodworking Magazine Article Index. One-Switch Chop Saw Station. Next-Generation Router Table. Light-Duty Folding Worktable. Solar Kiln. Tablesaw Storage Cabinet. This is it! The final installment on how to build a deluxe router table. Router Table Redesign 2nd Installment. Drill Press Cabinet. Full-Storage Workbench. Hide-Away Tool Stand.

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