15.01.2021  Author: admin   Workshop Bench Plans
This technique is often used when multiple labor unions in the same corporation join forces to gain contract concessions for their workers. Sometimes, a subculture may take the form of a counterculture. In William Lockeretz ed. Within the same organization, marketing and manufacturing departments often have different cultures such that the marketing department may emphasize innovativeness, whereas the manufacturing department may modern woodworking chapter 4 answers example a shared emphasis on detail orientation. Culture clash becomes more problematic if both parties have unique and strong cultures. Recycling is voluntary, but we encourage you to participate in order to help reduce our waste stream.

I drilled a hole in the center of the sawhorse…. Get some splitting leverage with this simple contraption. Its function is to trap your workpiece in such a way that you can exert leverage on…. David Thiel. What the heck? Ah, but I have had the pleasure of watching a forge in action very cool, lots of fire and sparks! But I kept coming back to the issue…. And although the design looks a bit outdated which could be easily addressed by simply changing out the handles , we still use this cabinet in our shop.

When I lived in Maine, I had a wide array of projects and furniture that I wanted to build for our house. When it became clear, however, that we were going to move down here to Covington, Ky.

Router table cabinets can be a waste of space. This compact, vise-mounted unit stores easily and is just the right size. Or maybe it was…. Combine power and hand tools to improve your joinery skills. MacDonald first published in the December issue of Popular Woodworking Magazine Building a toolbox much like this one was a real turning point in my woodworking career.

Shawn Graham - wortheffort woodworking. Tool storage — is it the most controversial subject in the craft? People have debated it. Great books have been dedicated to it. Philosophies have developed and wars fought over it well, at least flame wars.

Steve Johnson. My shop is large by some standards, small by some, and about average to a lot of woodworkers. No matter how large your shop, there are always projects that will not fit without careful planning and staging.

A perfect case in point is a new section of kitchen base…. First the short wind-up of an electric motor, then the sound of a blade cutting wood, then a short wind-down and silence. Seconds later, the exact sounds repeated… Modern Woodworking Chapter 7 Answers Of and then again. Years ago, while walking the halls of the offices where I worked I saw Frank at his desk, feet up, chair reclined, gazing out the window. Nick Lieurance. Our online router course with Colin Knecht will teach you all about routers and router….

Shop-Built 3-Jaw-Chuck A cheap, effective turning tool. Three-jaw lathe chucks are virtually indispensable for a turner, yet the cost of buying one can be prohibitive. Three-jaw chucks are useful when turning small pieces at low speed, and permit multi-axis turning.

This shop-made chuck can be made from scraps of maple and a few machine…. Folding Worktable This simple, roll-around worktable fits in tight spaces yet expands to a huge work surface. Ultimate Tool Stand An easy-to-use space saver with more functions than a Swiss army knife. By Dave Munkittrick For those of us who share shop space with a car or a washer and dryer, elbowroom is always a problem.

This tool stand is the answer. A good system starts with effective capture of dust at point of generation, includes efficient transport of the chips and dust, and depends on thorough separation and collection of dust and wood chips, leaving only clean air behind. In this…. By Chad Stanton As a professional woodworker, leaving the comfort of my shop to work on a jobsite is part of the routine.

Patterned after a professional shop, my large woodshop would include: Space for hundreds of board feet of lumber Dedicated power- and hand-tool workspaces A finishing room My own design area to play with mockups and such Large would be nice. Roll-Around Shop Cabinet This wooden cavern holds tons of tools, plus it doubles as a bench outrigger. However, in the woodworking…. Flammables Cabinet Keep your shop and family safe! Have you got finishing supplies scattered all over your shop?

The basic purpose of a flammables storage cabinet might come as a surprise…. Dado set, push sticks, throat plates, extra blades, miter gauges, tenoning jig, wrenches, etc.

The problem is…. Chad's Sawhorse Workbench Stacking sawhorses serve a dual purpose. By Chad Stanton I usually need a pair of sawhorses when I'm working outside the shop, but sometimes I also need a bench. Here's both, rolled into one. The bench is actually a pair of sawhorses that stack to together. I recently designed some inexpensive vises,…. Dan Farnbach. Efficiency does not always increase with experience, because as our woodshops grow older, they sometimes become unnecessarily rearranged or cluttered.

Each picture represents one half of a standard two-car garage. Click on the images for…. Chad's Stepbox Learn how to make compound-angle dovetails building this handy stool and portable tool box. Shopmade Handscrews Thread your own wooden screws. By Steven Bunn Even though I have a small fortune invested in tools, I always seem to be short of wooden handscrew clamps.

Mobile Router Center This rolling router center has onboard storage for all your router components, folds into a tidy package, serves as an extra work surface and rolls out of the way when you're done!

By George Vondriska Use It! Click any image to view a larger version. Move It! Store It! Unfold It! Is Your Shop Too Small? Tips for making king-size projects in a pint-size shop. By George Vondriska n a recent poll of woodworkers, the most common complaint,by far, was that their shops were too small.

Even one guy with 5, square feet thought he was cramped! In spite of that, most of us would like…. Compact Turning Center Put all your tools and accessories at your fingertips by building this storage rack.

By Jim Williar I made turning on my lathe much more enjoyable by trimming out the metal stand that it came with. Now all my turning tools are right at my fingertips, thanks to the built-in tool storage…. Matthew Teague. Roger Holmes. By Tom Caspar Quick, cheap, solid. Made of out nothing more than ordinary construction lumber, this durable, lb. The Grand Rossa A craftsman and artist transforms a stock piano into a Ferrari-inspired work of art.

To do so, he began designing and handcrafting custom piano legs using rare, superior species of wood…. By Jan Carr Tired of rummaging around your shop to find what you need to hang a picture or put up a shelf? This drill caddy…. For easy access, I like to get them out of their packages and lined up by grit. I hang my rolls…. Dream Workbench A modern bench that features storage, stability and mobility By Dave Munkittrick Tired of working on a sheet of plywood thrown over a pair of sawhorses?

Had it with rolling benches that wiggle and wobble? Hate running around your shop whenever you need a tool? Boy, do we have the bench for you…. Wedged-Base Workbench Tablesaw joinery locks it together. By Tim Johnson This workbench has a top ready for hard use.

The interlocking joinery, with its dovetails and wedges, is rock solid, yet it knocks down quickly for moving. Although it looks complicated, the base is surprisingly easy to…. By Randy Johnson and Luke Hartle In our shop, we used to pile tools, parts and hardware on top of a wobbly workbench made from 2x4s. When we had to glue a project together, we shoved everything aside. Finally, we…. Wooden Bar Clamps Shop-made clamps that deliver versatility and performance. By Dave Olson End your clamp shortage once and for all.

These wooden clamps are easy to make, a joy to use and they exert plenty of clamping pressure. If you build them with scrap lumber, they cost less than half the cost of a….

Modular Shop Cabinets Euro-style construction makes them easy to build, easy to customize. By Bruce Kieffer In days gone by, apprentice cabinetmakers used to build their own tool chests.

These modular shop cabinets function…. Double-Duty Shop Stool It's all plywood, and only uses a half sheet. By Eric Smith A combination stool and work support? Anything that takes up less room is a good idea! Hardworking Horse and Cart?? Two great additions to any small shop.

By Randy Johnson Do you spend a lot of time stacking, storing and pushing stuff around your small shop just to make room for the next phase of your project? Here are a couple of no-nonsense shop helpers that can make your small shop…. Plumb Your Shop with Air Flexible hose saves time and money By Richard Tendick Moments after I tripped over the air hose and dropped an armload of boards, I decided it was time to plumb my shop for air.

I was tired of having 50 ft. Dovetailed Tool Box Fill it, carry it, bang it around: These joints will last forever. By Seth Keller A lightweight, sturdy toolbox is perfect for odd jobs around the house.

Carpenters used to make their own, just nailed together. You may also like… Drill…. I love commercially made multiple-tip screwdrivers because they cut down on the clutter in my tool drawers. Mobile Outfeed Tables Upgrade your tablesaw and save precious Modern Woodworking Textbook Answers Chapter 3 Number shop space with a pair of outfeed tables.

When edges are perfect, these tools sing in your hands. Small Parts Carousel Put a spin on storing shop necessities. By Jeff Timm Here's a way to store all that indispensable small stuff that clutters your workshop. Based on a rotating bolt cabinet from an old-fashioned hardware store, this re-design rotates on inverted swivel casters. Bandsaw Fence Our fence shines where commercial models fall short.

By Richard Tendick Every bandsaw deserves a good fence. After all, a bandsaw is capable of doing much more than cutting curves. With a well-designed fence, you can accurately resaw boards into thinner pieces, rip warped rough lumber without worrying about kickback and precisely cut…. This is a model of a drill press table from the April Issue. Anyone who has glued up a few doors knows how frustrating it can be attempting to build assemblies that turn out both flat and square.

Last Friday afternoon we moved tons of stuff literally to our new shop and managed to get most of the big stuff set in place by the end of the day. The photo here will show you how things are shaping up and you can click on the photo to enlarge it for a better…. Ajax Alexandre. You can bring this CD right into the shop on your laptop computer and build these innovative and ingenious jigs!

Cut accurate joints in less time. Make safety a priority in the shop. Jigs are your…. That may be a slight exaggeration as I, for one, still enjoy turning pages. However, there is no doubt that whatever the future holds, we will be consuming information in many new forms — and….

Last winter, I was puzzling out a way to make edge joints that are just the opposite of what we normally want — perfectly straight. I wanted free-flowing curves and I wanted to join contrasting colors of wood species. So the question was how to match the two joint lines on the different pieces of…. For this collection, we looked through all the issues of Popular Woodworking from the last 12 years, and all our issues of Woodworking Magazine, to select….

Hyperorganize Your Shop A hook-and-slat wall system puts everything at your fingertips. Recently my neighbor remodeled his garage using a commercial wall-slat system. That gave me an idea for designing my own system. Giant Shop Cabinet Organize tons and tons of woodworking supplies with room to spare. By Tim Johnson If your workshop seems cluttered and your workbench is always covered with stuff, you need this cabinet.

It packs 30 cubic ft. Everything is readily…. By Seth Keller Building a steam box for bending wood only requires exterior-grade plywood, waterproof glue and an electric tea kettle. I bought my kettle from Lee Valley see Source, below. It came with an aluminum pipe to….

Heavy-Duty Folding Shop Table You can build this workhorse in a day, using little more than a tablesaw, jigsaw, hacksaw and a drill. By Tom Caspar Need more bench space?

And we mean strong. You can set it up in only a…. Big Capacity Storage Cabinet Restaurant storage tubs organize shop supplies for stow and go. By Dave Olson When I worked in a restaurant as a teenager, I hauled dirty dishes in plastic bus boxes.

Using them to organize my shop is much more pleasant. Bus boxes are light in weight and strong enough to hold…. This is a model of a foot-powered lathe with a scroll saw attachment that was featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking Magazine. This is a model of a tool chest featured on the cover of the June issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

This is a model of a wooden square that was featured in an article in the December issue of Popular Woodworking Magazine. This is a model of a birdhouse that was featured in an article in the August issue of Popular Woodworking Magazine. This is a model of a router table featured in the Jig Journal column of the June issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a turned stool that was featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

This is a model of a hand plane cabinet that was featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. A good project will push your skills, and test your ability. The Chinese stool from the last issue of Woodworking Magazine is by all measures a great project. It looks simple, but a close…. This is a model of a drill press workstation that was featured in an article in the June issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a stand for a benchtop router table that was featured in an article in the June issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

This is a model of a multi-purpose support stand featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

This is a model of a hand saw storage till featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a box for storing inch table saw blades that was featured in an article in the June issue of Poular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a drill press table featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

This is a model of a miter saw stand feature in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a mobile tool box featured in an article in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine.

This is a model of a portable tool rack featured in an article in the December issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This is a model of a table saw tapering jig featured in an article in the February issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. This miter saw work station was featured in the October issue of Popular Woodworking magazine. Each project builds on the skill learned in the preceding chapter.

This process makes for an easy and fun learning curve. One of the more attractive project tools…. Every now and then I get a question from a reader about the tool rack that hangs in the window of our shop behind my workbench. The rack in question was originally made in May for an article in Issue 8 of Woodworking Magazine. Chris Schwarz made…. Article Index. Get extra outfeed space without sacrificing precious floor space. It worked great except for one thing: I had to flip two switches just to make one cut.

The solution was simple. I bought a power strip,with keyholes for…. Next-Generation Router Table Make more accurate cuts with a flat, solid-surface top.

By John English 9 Key Features 1. Hinged Top. Bit changes are much easier. Pivot Control. Tall Fence. Solid-Surface Top. And extra-wide or figured wood is practically beyond reach. There are ways to use less oil, but…. All of your tablesaw accessories close at hand by Eric Smith The last time I could find them all, I counted 18 accessories for my tablesaw.

The problem is finding a convenient,…. It involves making mortise-and-tenon joinery and raised panels, fitting a drawer to its cabinet, using mechanical drawer slides and setting them up to work in tandem rather than side by side in the usual manner.

This newly redesigned router table is packing tons more storage space and sporting a totally overhauled chasis while retaining its cool running router carriage and dust collection system. Drill Press Cabinet Turn wasted space into storage space. By Jean Bartholome In my cramped little shop, every square foot counts. With that in mind I designed this cabinet to fit in the wasted space under the table of my floor-model drill press.

The top drawer holds vertically all the twist bits and brad-point bits…. Tired of working on a sheet of plywood thrown over a pair of sawhorses? Boy, do we have the bench for you.

Our dream bench starts with traditional workbench features like a thick top, a…. Folding Outfeed Table Open, it supports 8-ft. Are there different kinds of power? Are some people inherently more powerful than others?

Do you consider yourself to be a powerful person? We highlight three ways to understand power as it relates to group and team communication. If you associate power with control or dominance, this refers to the notion of power as power-over. Control can and does take many forms in society.

Starhawk explains that,. It may rule with weapons that are physical or by controlling the resources we need to live: money, food, medical care; or by controlling more subtle resources: information, approval, love. We are so accustomed to power-over, so steeped in its language and its implicit threats, that we often become aware of its functioning only when we see its extreme manifestations. When we are in group situations and someone dominates the conversation, makes all of the decisions, or controls the resources of the group such as money or equipment, this is power-over.

Power-from-within refers to a more personal sense of strength or agency. Like it or not, we are team players. If you think about your role in groups, how have you influenced other group members? Your strategies indicate your sense of power-from-within. For this to be effective in a group or team, at least two qualities must be present among members: 1 all group members must communicate respect and equality for one another, and 2 the leader must not abuse power-with and attempt to turn it into power-over.

Have you ever been involved in a group where people did not treat each others as equals or with respect? How did you feel about the group?

What was the outcome? Could you have done anything to change that dynamic? Power and oppression can be said to be mirror reflections of one another in a sense or two sides of the same coin. Where you see power that causes harm, you will likely see oppression. Importantly, we can conclude that oppression is the social act of placing severe restrictions on an individual, group, or institution.

Oppression emerges as a result of power, with its roots in global colonialism and conquests. For example, oppression as an action can deny certain groups jobs that pay living wages, can establish unequal education e. You may be wondering why some groups live in poverty, reside in substandard housing, or simply do not measure up to the dominant society in some facet. They are subjected to restrictions and seen as expendable and replaceable—particularly by agents of oppression.

This philosophy, in turn, minimizes the roles certain populations play in society. Sadly, agents of oppression often deny that this injustice occurs and blames oppressive conditions on the behaviors and actions of the oppressed group. Oppression subsequently becomes a system and patterns are adopted and perpetuated. Systems of privilege and oppression discriminate or advantage based on perceived or real differences among people.

Privilege here refers to the benefits, advantages, and power that are gained based on perceived status or membership in a dominant group. For example, Thai and Lien discuss diversity and highlight the impact of white privilege as a major contributor to systems and patterns of oppression for non-privileged individuals and groups. Additionally, socialization patterns help maintain systems of privilege and oppression.

Members of society learn through formal and informal educational environments that advance the ideologies of the dominant group, and how they should act and what their role and place are in society. Power is thus exercised in this instance but now is both psychologically and physically harmful. This process of constructing knowledge is helpful to those who seek to control and oppress, through power, because physical coercion may not last, but psychological ramifications can be perpetual, particularly without intervention.

As shared knowledge is sustained through social processes, and what we come to know and believe is socially constructed, so it becomes ever more important to discuss dominant narratives of our society and the meaning they lend to our culture, including as it relates to our interactions in groups and teams.

So what do systems of privilege and oppression mean for groups? Members in groups do not leave their identities or social and cultural contexts at the door. Power and status in groups are still shaped by these broader systems of privilege and oppression that are external to the group. This requires group members to reflect on how these broader systems are shaping dynamics within the group and their own perceptions and behaviors. In a group, members with higher status are apt to command greater respect and possess more prestige and power than those with lower status.

Our status is often tied to our identities and their perceived value within our social and cultural context. Status can also be granted through title or position.

The same holds true for the documented outcomes of schooling or training in legal, engineering, or other professional fields. Once a group has formed and begun to sort out its norms, it will also build upon the initial status that people bring to it by further allocating status according to its own internal processes and practices.

For instance, choosing a member to serve as an officer in a group generally conveys status to that person. What does this mean to you, and how are you apt to behave? First, the volume and direction of your speech will differ from those of others in the group. Second, some indicators of your participation will be particularly positive. Your activity level and self-regard will surpass those of lower-status group members. So will your level of satisfaction with your position.

Furthermore, the rest of the group is less likely to ignore your statements and proposals than it is to disregard what lower-status individuals say. Finally, the content of your communication will probably be different from what your fellow members discuss.

Lower-status members, on the other hand, are likely to communicate more about other matters. Differences in status within a group are inevitable and can be dangerous if not recognized and managed.

For example, someone who gains status without possessing the skills or attributes required to use it well may cause real damage to other members of a group, or to a group as a whole. A high-status, low-ability person may develop an inflated self-image, begin to abuse power, or both.

One of us worked for the new president of a college who acted as though his position entitled him to take whatever actions he wanted. In the process of interacting primarily with other high-status individuals who shared the majority of his viewpoints and goals, he overlooked or rejected concerns and complaints from people in other parts of the organization.

Turmoil and dissension broke out. Morale plummeted. Within groups, there are a number of different ways in which power can operate. French and Raven identified five primary ways in which power can be exerted in social situations, including in groups and teams.

These are considered to be different bases of power. In this case, A can use referent power to influence B. Referent power has also been called charismatic power, because allegiance is based on interpersonal attraction of one individual for another. Examples of referent power can be seen in advertising, where companies use celebrities to recommend their products; it is hoped that the star appeal of the person will rub off on the products. In work environments, junior managers often emulate senior managers and assume unnecessarily subservient roles more because of personal admiration than because of respect for authority.

Expert power is demonstrated when person A gains power because A has knowledge or expertise relevant to B. For instance, professors presumably have power in the classroom because of their mastery of a particular subject matter. Other examples of expert power can be seen in staff specialists in organizations e. In each case, the individual has credibility in a particular—and narrow—area as a result of experience and expertise, and this gives the individual power in that domain.

Legitimate power exists when person B submits to person A because B feels that A has a right to exert power in a certain domain Tjosvold, Legitimate power is really another name for authority. A supervisor has a right, for instance, to assign work.

Legitimate power differs from reward and coercive power in that it depends on the official position a person holds, and not on his or her relationship with others. Reward power exists when person A has power over person B because A controls rewards that B wants. These rewards can cover a wide array of possibilities, including pay raises, promotions, desirable job assignments, more responsibility, new equipment, and so forth. Research has indicated that reward power often leads to increased job performance as employees see a strong performance-reward contingency Shetty, However, in many organizations, supervisors and managers really do not control very many rewards.

For example, salary and promotion among most blue-collar workers is based on a labor contract, not a performance appraisal. Coercive power is based primarily on fear. Here, person A has power over person B because A can administer some form of punishment to B. Thus, this kind of power is also referred to as punishment power. As Kipnis points out, coercive power does not have to rest on the threat of violence. These bases provide the individual with the means to physically harm, bully, humiliate, or deny love to others.

Indeed, it has been suggested that a good deal of organizational behavior such as prompt attendance, looking busy, avoiding whistle-blowing can be attributed to coercive, not reward, power. We have seen, then, that at least five bases of power can be identified. In each case, the power of the individual rests on a particular attribute of the power holder, the follower, or their relationship.

In some cases e. In all cases, the exercise of power involves subtle and sometimes threatening interpersonal consequences for the parties involved. In fact, when power is exercised, individuals have several ways in which to respond. These are shown in Figure 1. If the subordinate accepts and identifies with the leader, their behavioral response will probably be one of commitment. That is, the subordinate will be motivated to follow the wishes of the leader.

This is most likely to happen when the person in charge uses referent or expert power. A second possible response is compliance. This occurs most frequently when the subordinate feels the leader has either legitimate power or reward power. Under such circumstances, the follower will comply, either because it is perceived as a duty or because a reward is expected; but commitment or enthusiasm for the project is lacking.

Finally, under conditions of coercive power, subordinates will more than likely use resistance. In any situation involving power, at least two persons or groups can be identified: 1 the person attempting to influence others and 2 the target or targets of that influence.

Until recently, attention focused almost exclusively on how people tried to influence others. More recently attention been given to how people try to nullify or moderate such influence attempts. In particular, we now recognize that the extent to which influence attempts are successful is determined in large part by the power dependencies of those on the receiving end of the influence attempts.

In other words, all people are not subject to or dependent upon the same bases of power. What causes some people to be vulnerable to power attempts? For example, if the outcomes that A can influence are important to B , then B is more likely to be open to influence than if the outcomes were unimportant.

In other words, such complaints may really be saying that young people are more difficult to influence than they used to be. In addition, the nature of the relationship between A and B can be a factor in power dependence. Are A and B peers or superior and subordinate? Is the job permanent or temporary? Moreover, if A and B are peers or good friends, the influence process is likely to be more delicate than if they are superior and subordinate. Finally, a third factor to consider in power dependencies is counterpower.

The use of counterpower can be clearly seen in a variety of situations where various coalitions attempt to bargain with one another and check the power of their opponents. Figure 2 presents a rudimentary model that combines the concepts of bases of power with the notion of power dependencies. If A has more modest power over B, but B is still largely power dependent, B may try to bargain with A.

For instance, if your boss asked you to work overtime, you might attempt to strike a deal whereby you would get compensatory time off at a later date. If successful, although you would not have decreased your working hours, at least you would not have increased them. Where power distribution is more evenly divided, B may attempt to develop a cooperative working relationship with A in which both parties gain from the exchange.

An example of this position is a labor contract negotiation where labor-management relations are characterized by a balance of power and a good working relationship. B may even become the aggressor and attempt to influence A. In doing so, B will discover either that A does indeed have more power or that A cannot muster the power to be successful.

These companies simply ignored governmental efforts until new regulations forced compliance. As we look at our groups and teams as well as our organizations, it is easy to see manifestations of power almost anywhere.

In fact, there are a wide variety of power-based methods used to influence others. Here, we will examine two aspects of the use of power: commonly used power tactics and the ethical use of power. As noted above, many power tactics are available for use.

However, as we will see, some are more ethical than others. Here, we look at some of the more commonly used power tactics found in both business and public organizations Pfeffer, that also have relevance for groups. Most decisions rest on the availability of relevant information, so persons controlling access to information play a major role in decisions made.

A good example of this is the common corporate practice of pay secrecy. Only the personnel department and senior managers typically have salary information—and power—for personnel decisions. Another related power tactic is the practice of controlling access to persons. His two senior advisers had complete control over who saw the president.

Similar criticisms were leveled against President Reagan. Very few questions have one correct answer; instead, decisions must be made concerning the most appropriate criteria for evaluating results. As such, significant power can be exercised by those who can practice selective use of objective criteria that will lead to a decision favorable to themselves. Attempts to control objective decision criteria can be seen in faculty debates in a university or college over who gets hired or promoted.

One group tends to emphasize teaching and will attempt to set criteria for employment dealing with teacher competence, subject area, interpersonal relations, and so on. Another group may emphasize research and will try to set criteria related to number of publications, reputation in the field, and so on.

One of the simplest ways to influence a decision is to ensure that it never comes up for consideration in the first place. There are a variety of strategies used for controlling the agenda. Efforts may be made to order the topics at a meeting in such a way that the undesired topic is last on the list. Failing this, opponents may raise a number of objections or points of information concerning the topic that cannot be easily answered, thereby tabling the topic until another day.

Still another means to gain an advantage is using outside experts. The unit wishing to exercise power may take the initiative and bring in experts from the field or experts known to be in sympathy with their cause. Hence, when a dispute arises over spending more money on research versus actual production, we would expect differing answers from outside research consultants and outside production consultants. Most consultants have experienced situations in which their clients fed them information and biases they hoped the consultant would repeat in a meeting.

In some situations, the organizations own policies and procedures provide ammunition for power plays, or bureaucratic gamesmanship. In this way, the group lets it be known that the workflow will continue to slow down until they get their way. The final power tactic to be discussed here is that of coalitions and alliances. One unit can effectively increase its power by forming an alliance with other groups that share similar interests. This technique is often used when multiple labor unions in the same corporation join forces to gain contract concessions for their workers.

It can also be seen in the tendency of corporations within one industry to form trade associations to lobby for their position. Although the various members of a coalition need not agree on everything—indeed, they may be competitors—sufficient agreement on the problem under consideration is necessary as a basis for action. Several guidelines for the ethical use of power can be identified.

These can be arranged according to our previous discussion of the five bases of power, as shown in Table 1. As will be noted, several techniques are available that accomplish their aims without compromising ethical standards.

For example, a person using reward power can verify compliance with work directives, ensure that all requests are both feasible and reasonable, make only ethical or proper requests, offer rewards that are valued, and ensure that all rewards for good performance are credible and reasonably attainable. Even coercive power can be used without jeopardizing personal integrity.

For example, a manager can make sure that all employees know the rules and penalties for rule infractions, provide warnings before punishing, administer punishments fairly and uniformly, and so forth. The point here is that people have at their disposal numerous tactics that they can employ without abusing their power. This remix comes from Dr.

Jasmine Linabary at Emporia State University. Hawn and Scott T. Organizational behavior. Access the full chapter for free here. The content is available under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4. Oppresion and power. Jason, O. Glantsman, J. Ramian Eds. The content is available under a Creative Commons Attribution International 4. Ancient animal remains found near early human settlements suggest that our ancestors hunted in cooperative groups Mithen, Cooperation, it seems, is embedded in our evolutionary heritage.

Even with issues that can only be solved through large-scale cooperation, such as climate change and world hunger, people can have difficulties joining forces with others to take collective action. Psychologists have identified numerous individual and situational factors that influence the effectiveness of cooperation across many areas of life.

This module will explore these individual, situational, and cultural influences on cooperation. Imagine that you are a participant in a social experiment.

As you sit down, you are told that you will be playing a game with another person in a separate room. The other participant is also part of the experiment but the two of you will never meet. In the experiment, there is the possibility that you will be awarded some money. The choice you make, along with that of the other participant, will result in one of three unique outcomes to this task, illustrated below in Figure 1. Remember, you and your partner cannot discuss your strategy.

Which would you choose? Striking out on your own promises big rewards but you could also lose everything. Cooperating, on the other hand, offers the best benefit for the most people but requires a high level of trust. It gets its name from the situation in which two prisoners who have committed a crime are given the opportunity to either A both confess their crime and get a moderate sentence , B rat out their accomplice and get a lesser sentence , or C both remain silent and avoid punishment altogether.

This divide between personal and collective interests is a key obstacle that prevents people from cooperating. Think back to our earlier definition of cooperation : cooperation is when multiple partners work together toward a common goal that will benefit everyone. At venues with seating, many audience members will choose to stand, hoping to get a better view of the musicians onstage.

As a result, the people sitting directly behind those now-standing people are also forced to stand to see the action onstage. This creates a chain reaction in which the entire audience now has to stand, just to see over the heads of the crowd in front of them.

That is, if people were only interested in benefiting themselves, we would always expect to see selfish behavior. Given the clear benefits to defect, why then do some people choose to cooperate, whereas others choose to defect? One key factor related to individual differences in cooperation is the extent to which people value not only their own outcomes, but also the outcomes of others.

A person might, for example, generally be competitive with others, or cooperative, or self-sacrificing. People with different social values differ in the importance they place on their own positive outcomes relative to the outcomes of others.

For example, you might give your friend gas money because she drives you to school, even though that means you will have less spending money for the weekend.

In this example, you are demonstrating a cooperative orientation. People generally fall into one of three categories of SVO: cooperative, individualistic, or competitive. While most people want to bring about positive outcomes for all cooperative orientation , certain types of people are less concerned about the outcomes of others individualistic , or even seek to undermine others in order to get ahead competitive orientation.

Are you curious about your own orientation? People with competitive SVOs, who try to maximize their relative advantage over others, are most likely to pick option A. People with cooperative SVOs, who try to maximize joint gain for both themselves and others, are more likely to split the resource evenly, picking option B.

People with individualistic SVOs, who always maximize gains to the self, regardless of how it affects others, will most likely pick option C. For example, in one laboratory experiment, groups of participants were asked to play a commons dilemma game. In this game, participants each took turns drawing from a central collection of points to be exchanged for real money at the end of the experiment. These points represented a common-pool resource for the group, like valuable goods or services in society such as farm land, ground water, and air quality that are freely accessible to everyone but prone to overuse and degradation.

Participants were told that, while the common-pool resource would gradually replenish after the end of every turn, taking too much of the resource too quickly would eventually deplete it. Taken together, these findings show that people with cooperative SVOs act with greater consideration for the overall well-being of others and the group as a whole, using resources in moderation and taking more effortful measures like using public transportation to protect the environment to benefit the group.

Research has shown that when people empathize with their partner, they act with greater cooperation and overall altruism —the desire to help the partner, even at a potential cost to the self. When empathizing with a person in distress, the natural desire to help is often expressed as a desire to cooperate.

In one study, just before playing an economic game with a partner in another room, participants were given a note revealing that their partner had just gone through a rough breakup and needed some cheering up. From a very early age, emotional understanding can foster cooperation.

Although empathizing with a partner can lead to more cooperation between two people, it can also undercut cooperation within larger groups. In groups, empathizing with a single person can lead people to abandon broader cooperation in favor of helping only the target individual. In one study, participants were asked to play a cooperative game with three partners.

In the game, participants were asked to A donate resources to a central pool, B donate resources to a specific group member, or C keep the resources for themselves. Objectively, this might seem to be the best option.

However, when participants were encouraged to imagine the feelings of one of their partners said to be in distress, they were more likely to donate their tickets to that partner and not engage in cooperation with the group—rather than remaining detached and objective Batson et al.

This is because communication provides an opportunity to size up Modern Woodworking Textbook Answers Chapter 13 Insta the trustworthiness of others. It also affords us a chance to prove our own trustworthiness, by verbally committing to cooperate with others. Since cooperation requires people to enter a state of vulnerability and trust with partners, we are very sensitive to the social cues and interactions of potential partners before deciding to cooperate with them.

During the chats, the players were allowed to discuss game strategies and make verbal commitments about their in-game actions. While some groups were able to reach a consensus on a strategy e. The researchers found that when group members made explicit commitments to each other to cooperate, they ended up honoring those commitments and acting with greater cooperation. This suggests that those who explicitly commit to cooperate are driven not by the fear of external punishment by group members, but by their own personal desire to honor such commitments.

Working with others toward a common goal requires a level of faith that our partners will repay our hard work and generosity, and not take advantage of us for their own selfish gains. Trusting others, however, depends on their actions and reputation. One common example of the difficulties in trusting others that you might recognize from being a student occurs when you are assigned a group project.

Imagine, for example, that you and five other students are assigned to work together on a difficult class project. At first, you and your group members split the work up evenly.

After a while, you might begin to suspect that this student is trying to get by with minimal effort, perhaps assuming others will pick up the slack. Indeed, research has shown that a poor reputation for cooperation can serve as a warning sign for others not to cooperate with the person in disrepute. For example, in one experiment involving a group economic game, participants seen as being uncooperative were punished harshly by their fellow participants.

If donors chose to give up a small sum of actual money, receivers would receive a slightly larger sum, resulting in an overall net gain. However, unbeknownst to the group, one participant was secretly instructed never to donate. On the other hand, people are more likely to cooperate with others who have a good reputation for cooperation and are therefore deemed trustworthy. In one study, people played a group economic game similar to the one described above: over multiple rounds, they took turns choosing whether to donate to other group members.

In other words, individuals seen cooperating with others were afforded a reputational advantage, earning them more partners willing to cooperate and a larger overall monetary reward. People can identify with groups of all shapes and sizes: a group might be relatively small, such as a local high school class, or very large, such as a national citizenship or a political party.

When members of a group place a high value on their group membership, their identity the way they view themselves can be shaped in part by the goals and values of that group.

Emphasizing group identity is not without its costs: although it can increase cooperation within groups, it can also undermine cooperation between groups. Outgroups do not have to be explicit rivals for this effect to take place.

Though a strong group identity can bind individuals within the group together, it can also drive divisions between different groups, reducing overall trust and cooperation on a larger scope. Under the right circumstances, however, even rival groups can be turned into cooperative partners in the presence of superordinate goals. The twenty-two boys in the study were all carefully interviewed to determine that none of them knew each other beforehand.

For the next phase of the experiment, the researchers revealed the existence of each group to the other, leading to reactions of anger, territorialism, and verbal abuse between the two. Eventually, the two groups refused to eat together in the same dining hall, and they had to be physically separated to avoid further conflict.

However, in the final phase of the experiment, Sherif and colleagues introduced a dilemma to both groups that could only be solved through mutual cooperation. As both groups gathered around the water supply, attempting to find a solution, members from each group offered suggestions and worked together to fix the problem.

Since the lack of drinking water affected both groups equally, both were highly motivated to try and resolve the issue. Finally, after 45 minutes, the two groups managed to clear a stuck pipe, allowing fresh water to flow. The researchers concluded that when conflicting groups share a superordinate goal, they are capable of shifting their attitudes and bridging group differences to become cooperative partners. The insights from this study have important implications for group-level cooperation.

Since many problems facing the world today, such as climate change and nuclear proliferation, affect individuals of all nations, and are best dealt with through the coordinated efforts of different groups and countries, emphasizing the shared nature of these dilemmas may enable otherwise competing groups to engage in cooperative and collective action.

To answer this question, Joseph Henrich and his colleagues surveyed people from 15 small-scale societies around the world, located in places such as Zimbabwe, Bolivia, and Indonesia. These groups varied widely in the ways they traditionally interacted with their environments: some practiced small-scale agriculture, others foraged for food, and still others were nomadic herders of animals Henrich et al.

If Player B accepts the offer, both players keep their agreed-upon amounts. However, if Player B rejects the offer, then neither player receives anything. According to a model of rational economics, a self-interested Player B should always choose to accept any offer, no matter how small or unfair. This number is almost identical to the amount that people of Western cultures donate when playing the ultimatum game Oosterbeek et al.

Henrich and colleagues also observed significant variation between cultures in terms of their level of cooperation. Specifically, the researchers found that the extent to which individuals in a culture needed to collaborate with each other to gather resources to survive predicted how likely they were to be cooperative. The interdependence of people for survival, therefore, seems to be a key component of why people decide to cooperate with others.

Though the various survival strategies of small-scale societies might seem quite remote from your own experiences, take a moment to think about how your life is dependent on collaboration with others. Very few of us in industrialized societies live in houses we build ourselves, wear clothes we make ourselves, or eat food we grow ourselves.

Instead, we depend on others to provide specialized resources and products, such as food, clothing, and shelter that are essential to our survival. While living in an industrialized society might not require us to hunt in groups like the Lamelara do, we still depend on others to supply the resources we need to survive.

Cooperation is an important part of our everyday lives. Practically every feature of modern social life, from the taxes we pay to the street signs we follow, involves multiple parties working together toward shared goals.

There are many factors that help determine whether people will successfully cooperate, from their culture of origin and the trust they place in their partners, to the degree to which they empathize with others. Although cooperation can sometimes be difficult to achieve, certain diplomatic practices, such as emphasizing shared goals and engaging in open communication, can promote teamwork and even break down rivalries. Though choosing not to cooperate can sometimes achieve a larger reward for an individual in the short term, cooperation is often necessary to ensure that the group as a whole——including all members of that group—achieves the optimal outcome.

Jake P. His research focuses on the nature of prosocial behavior, and how factors such as identity, ideology, and morality impact human prosocial tendencies. Paul K. Piff, Ph. Piff's research examines the origins of human kindness and cooperation, and the social consequences of economic inequality.

We are more easily persuaded, in general, by the reasons that we ourselves discovers than by those which are given to us by others. No doubt there has been a time when you wanted something from your parents, your supervisor, or your friends, and you thought about how you were going to present your request.

But do you think about how often people—including people you have never met and never will meet—want something from you?

When you watch television, advertisements reach out for your attention, whether you watch them or not. When you use the Internet, pop-up advertisements often appear. Living in the United States, and many parts of the world, means that you have been surrounded, even inundated, by persuasive messages.

Mass media in general and television in particular make a significant impact you will certainly recognize. Mass communication contains persuasive messages, often called propaganda, in narrative form, in stories and even in presidential speeches. Your local city council often involves dialogue, and persuasive speeches, to determine zoning issues, resource allocation, and even spending priorities. You yourself have learned many of the techniques by trial and error and through imitation.

Persuasion is an act or process of presenting arguments to move, motivate, or change your audience. Aristotle taught that rhetoric, or the art of public speaking, involves the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion Covino, W.

In the case of President Obama, he may have appealed to your sense of duty and national values. In persuading your parents to lend you the car keys, you may have asked one parent instead of the other, calculating the probable response of each parent and electing to approach the one who was more likely to adopt your position and give you the keys. Persuasion can be implicit or explicit and can have both positive and negative effects. Motivation is distinct from persuasion in that it involves the force, stimulus, or influence to bring about change.

Persuasion is the process, and motivation is the compelling stimulus that encourages your audience to change their beliefs or behavior, to adopt your position, or to consider your arguments. Why think of yourself as fat or thin? Why should you choose to spay or neuter your pet? Messages about what is beautiful, or what is the right thing to do in terms of your pet, involve persuasion, and the motivation compels you to do something.

Another way to relate to motivation also can be drawn from the mass media. Perhaps you have watched programs like Law and Order , Cold Case , or CSI where the police detectives have many of the facts of the case, but they search for motive.

You can find out what your hurricane evacuation zone is for Pasco County by calling during regular business hours. You will click on the link, click on the map, and then proceed with typing in your address. Pasco County has a Disaster Guide that can help keep you and your family safe during any hazard that Pasco County may face. However, if a sinkhole incident a sinkhole on private property that endangers the lives of the residents is reported and Emergency Management responds to the scene, an incident report will be completed and kept on file.

Other options available for citizens to inquire about sinkholes on private property are as follows: Contact the insurance company of the previous owner s for information on any reported sinkholes. Their database lists properties in which a permit has been pulled for sinkhole repair.

All requests for locations of fire hydrants must be made in writing. Fire Rescue accepts Requests for Letters of Protection by:. Please provide the address to which the information is needed. Fire Rescue will respond to the request by letter. The letter will contain the location of the nearest fire hydrant as well as the nearest fire station and the ISO rating Insurance Service Org.

Only the Engineer of Record can request an inspection. Upon his verification that the site has met his certification requirements will there be a request. The Engineer of Record, Developer and Contractor can contact us anytime with concerns that may come up through the construction phase; but must contact us two days prior to any site construction activity. Two days notice is also required prior to any permitted activity in the Right-of-Way.

This is a requirement accepted and signed by the developer when the plans were approved by the Zoning Review Division. Similar to many of Florida water sources, it is considered hard. Pasco County Utilities public water systems meet and exceeds all water quality parameters set forth by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection FDEP and other regulatory agencies. In short, water conditioning units can be useful, but do require some additional maintenance and upkeep from the consumer. West - Ext.

There are three locations in the county that provide operations and maintenance services. To request service during normal business operations please contact the respective Facilities Management service desk West, Central, East where the facility is located. Service can be requested in one of the following ways:. It is always best to communicate any time sensitive incidents or requests by phone.

High priority issues or emergencies should always be reported by phone. Matt Krnjaich - Ext. Work Order System 7. Do you have video of an incident?

Various sites throughout the County have video surveillance cameras, to inquire whether Facilities has video surveillance at a specific site, or to request copies of an incident, please contact Matt Krnjaich for more details. Matt Krnjaich at Ext. Facilities Management has a Sr. To discuss your Department's needs, or to request additional space, please contact our Sr.

Cynthia Rivera Ext. Service can be requested by contacting your regional Facilities Management Department. Facilities Management Offices: West - westmaintenance pascocountyfl. Please contact our Operations Supervisor, Dan Corson, who oversees all service contracts within our department. Dan Corson - Ext.

To file for unemployment, contact the unemployment office at or or apply online through the Florida Department of Economic Opportunity. If you believe you may qualify for Medicaid, you can apply for this benefit with the Department of Children and Families at the link below.

You may also call to locate additional resources. Where can I get help with my electric bill? If there is someone in your household age 60 or older, you MAY qualify for electric assistance with Human Services.

Please complete an online application for this service directly through our website at the link below. If you require additional assistance or are not able to complete an online application, please contact your local Resource Center or call our contact number. If there is no one in your home age 60 or older, your household does not qualify for assistance through Human Services at this time.

We encourage you to contact Mid Florida Community Services, another local agency, as they may be able to assist. You can contact them at You may also contact or your local Resource Center for additional options. ZH Holiday Hours. Visit any branch. Or sign up for a virtual card online - you will be contacted with your new card number to use with all of our digital resources. You can access your account at our website. Login with your digit library account number found on the back of your library card no spaces , and your last name in CAPITAL letters as your password..

You can view and update your contact information residence, email, phone , place holds, and view checked-out and held items. For a new card, sign up here! We offer digital content to download or stream, including books, movies, music, comics, and much more. We also offer online tools and tutorials for research and learning, database resources, and much much more.

All by simply using your free library card! If you reside in one of the surrounding counties that are a part of the Reciprocal Borrowing Agreement, you may obtain a "reciprocal" card with partial privileges. Surrounding counties are identified within the Reciprocal Borrowing Policy. Yes, all 8 library branches have internet and Wi-Fi wireless access. With a library card a patron can access the internet and programs on our public computers such as Microsoft Office.

No library card? Just sign up for one when you come in. Guest passes are also available for anyone needing temporary use of our computers. Stop by our Information desk. PCLS Twitter. PCLS Facebook - main page. Centennial Park Facebook page. Hudson Regional Facebook page. Hugh Embry Facebook page. New River Facebook page. Regency Park Facebook page. South Holiday Facebook page. You may hold reserve up to 15 items in our catalog - or request an item not found in our catalog - by logging into your account online, or by calling or visiting a branch.

A verified patron may have 35 items checked out, with a 7-item maximum on DVDs and 2-item maximum on games. Non-verified patrons - those who have not yet verified their county residency - are limited to 2 books and computer use. Other limitations and restrictions may apply depending on your card type. See our Circulation Policy for more information. We value our supporters and volunteers! Volunteer applications are available on our website.

However, please note, positions are limited at this time. Yes, bus passes are sold at all library branches. For details, contact any branch, or visit Fares and Bus Pass Information for more information about pricing.

General information can be found on the Public Transportation page. Libraries is not offering pet licenses at this time.. Voter registration forms are available at all library branches in Pasco. Simply ask at any of the service desks. When you have completed your form, return it to the service desk and it will be sent same day to the Supervisor of elections office.

For more information on voter registration, see the Supervisor of Elections page. Computer access is available at all of our library branches.

Computers automatically shut down 5 minutes before the library closes. Time limits may be given so that everyone has a chance to use this service. Each person using a computer is guaranteed 60 minutes. If no one is waiting for the computer, an extension of time may be given. Patrons are not limited to one session per day. You can login to our computers with either a library card, or a guest pass - available at the Service Desk. County Administration may choose to close the libraries in order for library employees to assist the citizens who are affected by an emergency in a variety of ways.

Chat with, or text, or email Ask A Librarian. You can also visit our website , fill out an online form , or call any branch during operating hours.

In east Pasco County, the office is located at: 7th St. Dade City, FL 3. Where do I pay fines and court costs and can I pay in cash? Fines and court costs may be paid in cash directly to the Clerk of the Circuit Court. You can also contact them by calling Where is the Misdemeanor Probation Office located?

Entrance is around the rear of the building. Dade City, FL 5. Is there a bus stop nearby? Click on the link to the bus schedules for more information. Personal identification is required. Yes, the cost varies depending on your category. You can contact the site directly or contact administration at for a list of sites. The driver will then issue them free bus tickets covering the trip to and from the Center. Is there housing assistance available? Temporary housing assistance is offered by the Pasco County Community Development Division to those impacted by flooding.

Temporary housing assistance may provide for up to two weeks in a hotel, this is available to renters and homeowners. Repairs include well and septic repairs, air conditioner replacement, mold remediation, appliance replacement, roof repair, electrical and plumbing.

If eligible, the County will also pay for insurance deductible. These are 10 yr. Hours of operation are a. For additional information, residents can contact Pasco County Community Development at If additional funds become available from the State, there may be assistance for reconstruction of destroyed homes.

Applications are available now. Pasco County will be notified what assistance it will receive from FEMA once the joint damage assessment is completed. Please check our website for updates. Is my water contaminated? Municipal Water supplies are unaffected. If your water is supplied by a well and you are in a flooded area, your water may contain disease-causing bacteria and may not be safe to drink. How to make my water safe? The Florida Department of Health in Pasco County recommends one of the following in order preference: 1.

Use commercially bottled water, or 2. Bring water to a full boil for at least 1 minute and allow to cool at room temperature before using it for drinking, mixing baby formula, cooking, making ice, brushing teeth or washing dishes, or 3. Let it stand 30 minutes. If water is cloudy after 30 minutes, repeat the procedure once. If the water remains cloudy, do not use. Use a container that has a cap or cover for disinfecting and storing water to be used for drinking.

This will prevent contamination. Where do I get my water tested? New Port Richey, Fl. Call for additional hours and information. What do I do if I am on a septic system and my plumbing is functioning sluggishly? Conserve water as much as possible. The less water used, the less sewage the septic tank must process. Minimize use of your washing machine and consider utilizing a laundromat. Rental of a portable toilet for a temporary period may be another option.

Do not have the septic tank pumped out. Exceptionally high water tables might crush a septic tank that was pumped dry. If the problem is high ground water because of the rains and flooding, pumping the tank will not solve the problem. Do not have the septic tank and drain field repaired until the ground has had an opportunity to dry. Often, systems are completely functional when unsaturated conditions return.

Any repair must be permitted and inspected by your county health department. If you cannot use your plumbing without creating a sanitary nuisance, such as discharging sewage on the ground, consider relocating temporarily until conditions improve. Why are the roads failing? The substantial rainfall caused extreme saturation of the ground beneath many roads across the County.

The weight of traffic then caused the asphalt to fail, resulting in the formation of potholes, depressions, and road damage. Potholes and depressions are continuing to form. Public Works is filling the holes as rapidly as possible. To report potholes: 1 Use the MyPasco App. For more information about the MyPasco App, please visit: www. What is Pasco County doing to address road failure?

Public Works is tracking the locations of failed roadways and developing a repair priority. Temporary repairs to maintain access are underway. Permanent repairs will, in most cases, take time to be made. How can residents help minimize road damage? If possible, avoid driving over damaged areas.

Minimize the use of heavy vehicles in saturated or damaged areas. Where can residents find more information about the current situation?

Informational meetings are being scheduled and will be held for each area that has been affected. Please monitor the website www. Will Pasco County repair privately maintained roads damaged due to the flooding?

Due to State Law limitations, the County will only perform repairs on privately maintained roads if those roads are no longer accessible to emergency vehicles. In such an event, the County may take steps to make that road accessible to emergency vehicles. Are there changes in trash pickup schedules? Contact your local hauler for a delivery schedule. Will there be debris pickup? Crews will begin debris removal beginning Monday, August 17, at a. Operations will run Monday through Friday for three weeks.

Homeowners must have all debris materials brought to the curb or street side for roadside for pick up. Residents should be aware not to block fire hydrants, mailboxes, electrical boxes or any other structures. These areas have special flood hazards associated with high velocity waters from surges; and, therefore, in addition to meeting all provisions in this section, the following provisions shall also apply:.

All new construction and substantial improvements in zones V1-V30, V, and VE shall be elevated on pilings and columns so that:.

The bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member of the lowest floor excluding the pilings or columns is elevated no lower than one foot above the base-flood elevation level; and.

The pile or column foundation and structure attached thereto is anchored to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement due to the effects of wind and water loads acting simultaneously on all building components. Wind and water loading values shall each have a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year year mean recurrence interval. Registered professional engineer or architect shall develop or review the structural design, specifications, and plans for the construction and shall certify that the design and methods of construction to be used are in accordance with accepted standards of practice for meeting the provisions of section Obtain the elevation in relation to mean sea level of the bottom of the lowest structural member of the lowest floor excluding pilings and columns of all new and substantially improved structures in zones VV30 and VE.

The county administrator, or his designee, shall maintain a record of all such information. Provide that all new construction and substantial improvements have the space below the lowest floor either free of obstruction or constructed with non-supporting breakaway walls; open-wood latticework; or insect screening intended to collapse under wind and water loads without causing collapse, displacement, or other structural damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system.

For the purpose of this section, a breakaway wall shall have a design safe loading resistance of not less than ten and no more than 20 pounds per square foot.

Use of breakaway walls which exceed a design safe loading resistance of 20 pounds per square foot either by design or when so required by local codes may be permitted only if a registered professional engineer or architect certifies that the designs proposed meet the following conditions:. Breakaway wall collapse shall result from water load less than that which would occur during the base flood; and. The elevated portion of the building and supporting foundation system shall not be subject to collapse, displacement, or other structural damage due to the effects of wind and water loads acting simultaneously on all building components structural and nonstructural.

Maximum wind and water loading values to be used in this determination shall each have a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.

If breakaway walls are utilized, such enclosed space shall be usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access, or limited storage. Such space shall not be used for human habitation.

Prohibit man made alteration of sand dunes or mangrove stands that would increase potential flood damage. In an expansion to an existing manufactured home park or subdivision; or,. In an existing manufactured home park or subdivision on which a manufactured home has incurred substantial damage as the result of a flood, meet the standards of sections Be fully licensed and ready for highway use, on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick disconnect-type utilities and security devices, and has no permanently attached additions; or,.

Meet the requirements of section B and section B and F of this Code. Critical facilities: Construction of new critical facilities shall be, to the extent possible, located outside the limits of the special flood hazard area SFHA year floodplain. Construction of new critical facilities shall be permissible within the SFHA if no feasible alternative site is available.

Critical facilities constructed within the SFHA shall have the lowest floor elevated three feet or more above the level of the base-flood elevation at the site. Flood proofing and sealing measures must be taken to ensure that toxic substances will not be displaced by or released into floodwaters.

Access routes elevated to or above the level of the base-flood elevation shall be provided to all critical facilities to the extent possible. You must first complete a comprehensive plan amendment application form.

The next step is to call us at to schedule a pre-application meeting with a planner. County inspectors will make sure the gates are open. This might take some time to do since it is not an easy procedure. For more information Stormwater Management can be contacted at There are numerous areas in the County that have major flooding problems.

Areas with the most severe flooding issues are addressed first. The best way to report potholes, or request any other service from the Operations Division, is to file a service request on the county's website with the Customer Service Center.

The Customer Service Center can also be reached at , or The center will be able to help you with all of your requests. A work request is sent to Operations for the work to be scheduled. Roads constructed by the county, for example through the Capital Improvement Program, automatically become part of the Maintenance Program. For subdivision roads, the developer posts a maintenance bond and the roads have to be constructed to county specifications prior to acceptance. While the county will resurface major arterial and collector roadways, lower volume residential streets are repaved under the Public Works and Improvements Paving Assessment Ordinance No.

The benefiting property owners share the cost for these projects. For more information on Paving Assessments, call Since unpaved roads have a substantially higher maintenance cost, it has been the practice of the county not to accept any additional unpaved roads into the system. Over the last couple of decades, the county has not accepted unpaved roads into the Maintenance Program.

The monies for road maintenance come from the Local Option Gas Tax. No property taxes are used for this purpose. The county only maintains sidewalks in cases where the county constructed the sidewalk. The maintained sidewalks are normally part of the major road network. Sidewalks constructed by developers or property owners are not maintained by the county.

The Traffic Operations Division of Engineering Services maintains all the traffic signals in Pasco County, to include those located on non-county maintained roads. How do I report an emergency road condition, stop sign down or other road problems after hours or on the weekends?

Public Works hours are p. For emergencies after hours: Call Fire Rescue's Emergency call For non-emergencies call Under Chapter 94 of the Pasco County of Ordinances, an assessment project can either be initiated through a citizen petition OR by the action of the Board of County Commissioners. Even if a petition fails to achieve the passage requirements set forth in the Ordinance, the Board has the ultimate authority to adopt an assessment where it believes it would be in the best interest of the health, safety and welfare of the residents within the boundaries of the proposed project.

What are ERUS and how are they calculated? The number of residential dwelling units in existence on your property and the number of residential dwelling units allowed to be placed on the property under its current zoning or the predominant zoning in the project area. What other factors does the County consider in calculating an assessment? View the assessment calculation factors page for information. How does an assessment project get approved? All assessment projects both those initiated by citizen petition and those initiated by the Board must be approved by the Board of County Commissioners at a public hearing.

Ballots will be sent out to benefitted property owners for projects initiated by citizens who will have an opportunity to vote Yes, in favor of the project or No, against the project. Prior to the public hearing, all potentially affected property owners are notified by registered mail of the date, time and place of the proposed public hearing along with the maximum amount of assessment they may be required to pay if the project is approved.

Citizens interested in an assessment are provided an opportunity to share their opinion on the matter during the public comment portion of the public hearing. What will happen if I do not return my ballot? Only those ballots received by the County within the stated time frame are counted when determining if a citizen initiated project passes or not.

If an assessment project is approved at the public hearing, is a lien automatically placed against my property for the amount of the proposed assessment? If a project is approved at a public hearing, a preliminary assessment roll listing the parcels, their owners of record and the maximum amount is adopted by the Board and recorded in the public records of the County. This roll serves as a public notice to potential new owners and other parties who may wish to have an interest in any property within the project area that an assessment not to exceed the maximum amount listed in the roll will become due to the County at some point in the future.

This roll DOES NOT create a lien against your property and no payment for the assessment is due until it is included by the Property Appraiser on your ad valorem tax bill after all the work in the project area has been completed. Although the paving assessment will appear on the tax bill, it is an alternate method of notification and collection of a non-ad valorem paving assessment, Since the paving assessment is a non-ad valorem assessment, a property owner who has military and or disability status is not excluded from the paving assessment.

When will I have to pay for the paving work to be performed? No payment is due for any work performed until the project is fully finished and the final costs have been calculated AND the County has adopted a final assessment roll which creates a legal lien for the final cost for each parcel of property included in the assessment project.

Each property owner will then receive a bill from the County for the assessment amount which they can elect to pay off all at once. Will I lose my property? That is, if the assessment amount or the annual installment is not paid off by the April 1st deadline for property taxes, the Tax Collector can sell off a tax certificate for the amount of taxes due. If no subsequent annual payments are made, the Tax Collector will continue to issue tax certificates for the annual amount due.

After a minimum of 2 years of non-payment of the annual assessment installments due, a tax deed for the property can be issued. If the tax deed is sold to a third party without the property owner paying off the amount due, the property owner could lose title to their property. Should you ever declare bankruptcy, transfer or sell the property and an assessment amount is still due, the County at that point will seek to be paid for the full assessment amount of any proceeds available.

What happens to the lien if I Modern Woodworking Chapter 10 Answers Web choose to pay-off my assessment early? If at any point you would like to pay your assessment off early, you will be responsible for the principal, plus the entire interest that has been accrued on the parcel to date. After payment has been received, a Satisfaction of Lien will be filed with the Clerk of the Circuit Court to release the lien on your parcel.

Is there any way I can reduce the assessment? At your expense, you may choose to Down Zone your parcel to a different zoning classification that would allow for fewer residential units on your parcel or have a Deed Restriction limiting the amount of development allowed on the parcel before the final assessment is adopted by the Board of County Commissioners.

All costs involved in either of these processes are the sole responsibility of the property owner. If you wish to pursue either of the two options, please understand that the resale value of your property may be affected.

It is important you let the County know in advance of the public hearing at which the preliminary assessment will be considered so that any necessary adjustments in the final roll can be made. I would like to take part in the county's first time home buyer assistance program as a vendor to offer real estate and mortgage services. How can I register? In order to participate, you must go to the Community Development section of the County website, go to the partners section.

There is a vendor form there. The water shortages experienced in recent years during the non-rainy season have placed considerable stress on the reclaimed distribution system. Due to operational experience during these dry periods of the year, a reclaimed water irrigation schedule has been adopted to limit lawn watering to two days per week.

This limitation not only alleviates seasonal operational shortages but will actually help build a healthier lawn. Please view the current watering restrictions. In Pasco you can provide your own container bin, can or cart or call your hauler to order a cart. The Residential Curbside Recycling Program is available to single-family residential units or multifamily units being serviced as a single-family. This means if you're paying for twice-a-week curbside garbage pickup, you already have recycling service.

Recycling is voluntary, but we encourage you to participate in order to help reduce our waste stream. Your garbage hauler is required to provide you with a schedule for your recyclable pickups: it may or may not be on the same day as your garbage pickup.

Pasco recycles the following items:. Please throw away caps, lids, and spray bottle nozzles, and make sure your items are clean and dry. Put everything in the same recycling container and place your recycling at the curb the night before your recycling pick-up day. Pasco County doesn't pick up your recycling. Your trash hauler picks up your recycling and brings it to the county facility.

Your trash collection and recycling days are set by the private hauler you selected. Please contact your trash hauler to determine your recycling day.

Click here to see trash hauler contact information in Pasco. The private company you pay to pick up your trash will provide a cart, and can let you know how much it will cost. Pasco County does not have access to individual account information. Please click here for trash hauler contact information in Pasco. Private trash haulers in Pasco County have 90 days from the Board of County Commissioners' June 4, , decision to start weekly recycling; however, some haulers are offering the service sooner than that.

Please contact your hauler for more information. Trash collection and recycling service costs are a local issue. Different jurisdictions states, counties, cities, etc. Pasco understands that other counties might do things differently, but we must work within the system and its constraints to ensure you receive the services you need.

The material you recycle is a matter of what local markets will accept. In Pasco, glass goes to the Waste-to-Energy plant where it will likely be used in future, sustainable public works projects. Glass contaminates the rest of your recycling. The glass dust and glass shards get into other materials making them less recyclable. This isn't a new problem; however, the standards for recycling material keep rising, and glass is making it more difficult to recycle other things.

Also, there is no viable market for glass in Florida. And eliminating glass from Pasco's recycling program is more environmentally-friendly. Instead of ultimately being buried in a landfill due to contamination and low quality, glass now goes to Pasco's Waste-to-Energy plant where it will likely be used in future, sustainable public works projects, leaving less of a carbon footprint.

Removing glass from Pasco's recycling stream will improve our recycling efforts. Recycling also helps protect the environment, so we hope you'll take part! Tossing your glass in the trash sends it to our Waste-to-Energy plant where it can be used in future, sustainable public works projects, leaving less of a carbon footprint.

Removing glass from Pasco's recycling program is more environmentally-friendly! Weekly recycling is coming soon! As of June 4, , trash haulers have 90 days to implement once-a-week recycling. Call your hauler for a new pick-up schedule. Click here for a list of private hauler phone numbers in Pasco. Please contact your hauler at the number listed on your bill. If that does not resolve the issue, please contact Pasco County Recycling at Currently, there are no optional meal choices available.

The meals are preplanned and meet the nutrient analysis of a minimum of Complimentary fingerprinting services are only provided for the following state statutory reasons: 1. Concealed Weapons Permit Applicants 2. Application for an expungement of records. Application for process servers 5. How do I register as a felon? The hours are Mon, Tues, Wed, and Fri, 8am to pm. Contact number is For children aged through 3 years, such restraint device must be a separate carrier or a vehicle manufacturer's integrated child seat.

For children aged 4 through 5 years, a separate carrier, an integrated child seat, or a seat belt may be used. Please arrive by p. Is there a charge if I bring my household trash to the landfill? All M. Homeowners only.

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