31.07.2020  Author: admin   Simple Wood Craft Ideas
Ohno urged managers, too, to visit the gemba. Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. Students who speak well are already on their way to learning formal grammar by example. I normally found about omdern the guests in each bath. Output means such items as products, services, yield, and added value.

Starting in Year 2 or 3, a child should begin slowly assuming the responsibility of reading his books. Perhaps in Year 2, the parent might choose one of the school books for the child to attempt on his own.

His narrations from that book will manifest whether the child is comprehending or not. Every term, it should be expected that the child will assume more and more of his own reading until the only books that are read to him are those that require parental editing or or benefit from discussion, like Plutarch.

Shakespeare will always be read aloud because, being a play, it's more enjoyable to act it out together. Parents will need to use discernment to decide how much of the reading the child is ready to handle on his own, considering comprehension and frustration levels. It is expected that, even after children are able to do their own school reading, families will share regular read-aloud time for fun. You can read more about this topic at this link.

In an ideal school situation, a teacher trained in Charlotte Mason's methods would have pre-read and prepared every lesson. If you can do that too, it's a fine thing. The reality is that most homeschool moms of many are not going to be able to pre-read everything. There are a few strategies to help you be as prepared as possible, such as quickly skimming that day's reading ahead of time, or looking at an online site such as SparkNotes , and we encourage you to pay attention to your children's narrations as a way of evaluating how well they are understanding what they read.

Although we cannot promise to have found every issue that will cause parents a concern especially in the upper years , AmblesideOnline adds footnotes on the booklists whenever a specific book might be a concern to parents to give a heads-up.

When you see a footnote on our booklist marked in red, we've flagged something in that book that parents should be aware of -- click on the red number to see what specifically is noted for that book to determine wherther that is a concern for you, and how you will deal with it let it go, discuss that portion of the book with your child, read aloud so you can edit, or skipping that part of the book.

If you have an unusually sensitive child, you may need to do more pre-reading to determine whether a specific book might trigger your child's sensitivities. AO offers CM-style exams for each Year. Exams are optional - nobody at this website will be checking or grading your exams, but some AO moms have attempted doing CM-style exams as a way to gauge their child's progress.

Charlotte Mason gave essay-type exams asking students questions like what they remembered of a particular book read earlier in the term, or to compare the qualities of two characters in a book, or to trace the travels of a journey they read about. There was no review before a term's exam in Charlotte Mason's schools - the child was assumed to have mastered the information after reading about it and narrating it. You can read more at this link. Language Arts How does a Charlotte Mason curriculum handle language arts, including phonics, handwriting, copywork, grammar and composition?

AmblesideOnline's language arts consists of reading instruction, transcription copywork , narration, dictation and grammar. Creative writing consists of physically forming the letters, composing thoughts and, finally, tranferring those thoughts to paper. Charlotte Mason's methods teach each of these steps separately - physically forming letters copywork , composing thoughts narrating and transferring those thoughts to paper written narration.

In grammar there's only a small body of knowledge to learn--it doesn't need to take years and years to learn it, and it doesn't need to start in first grade. Students will pick up grammar concepts without years and years of formal training if they read books. Trust the process! By the end of elementary school, students only really need to know two rules: 1 Capitalize sentences and proper nouns.

It's also useful but not vitally necessary to be familiar with the following so that, when grammar is learned later, these concepts aren't totally new. This is only a suggestion. Don't worry if you haven't covered these, and don't feel pressured to rush out and buy a curriculum to teach them.

They can be introduced naturally during routine school reading. All your child needs is to be be able to identify these in a sentence: The four kinds of sentences question, statement, command, exclamation and the eight parts of speech conjunction, noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, interjection.

When you begin written narrations, you can introduce more punctuation. Don't teach the mechanics of writing before students are actually writing! This might be around year 5 or later. Two years after beginning written narrations, you can begin to focus on style. The most effective way to teach language arts is to get your child reading their school books themselves as soon as possible.

When reading aloud, your child's mind may wander. Also, he isn't seeing the words on the page, so he's not seeing the spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, and he isn't being challenged to push his reading levels.

When you read all your child's school books to him, he isn't learning to spell, you are. So read aloud a fun story to enjoy together, but your student should be doing his own reading for school. Read our page about Language Arts at this link. Charlotte Mason's method included sight-recognition as well as phonics; Kathy Livingston wrote about phonics at this link.

There's a series of CM reading posts at JoyfulShepherdess's blog or read all 7 parts: 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7. AmblesideOnline mentions a few programs that have worked for Advisory members, but use whatever you like. Once children are able to read, they should be reading many or most of their schoolbooks for themselves. Read more about phonics and reading instruction at this link.

A child learns the physical skills of learning to write, first by perfectly forming each letter, and later by copying sentences or paragraphs.

In the beginning, copywork is no more than letter practice - the child works on forming letters perfectly, with the emphasis on neat, accurate formation: quality rather than quantity. A Year 1 child should do only as much as he can do neatly in five or ten minutes - perhaps only a single word, or a few examples of one letter, such as "a. It is through transcription that specific skills such as punctuation and mechanics what a paragraph is, when to use capital letters are picked up.

Copywork done properly forces a child to slow down and absorb the punctuation details, notice capitalization, and internalize sparkling, well-written prose. Copywork is usually done daily, but children who are exceptionally resistant to writing may do it two or three times a week. How perfect does copywork need to be?

As soon as the child makes an error, even if it is so small as a comma, should you take the paper away and make him start again from scratch until they get it perfect in one sitting, even if it takes an hour?

No, this is nowhere in CM's volumes. This seems developmentally inappropriate, and is not what CM described for copywork. Go for the child's best work, but you know your child: be realistic in your expectations. Aim for success, not exasperation. What should be transcribed? Since modeling excellence in writing is important, children should copy literary examples - poems, scripture verses, passages from wonderfully written books, memorable quotes.

For that reason, using a child's own creative writing for copywork is not recommended. Some members like to collect and prepare memorable sayings and advice for use as copywork, but that is not necessary - you can use poems and passages from the child's school books. Some parents choose copywork passages that include spelling words or punctuation examples that they want their child to learn. Many children like helping to select their copywork. Copywork continues through all twelve years of a child's education, although an older child may do his copywork in a copybook of quotes and quips that he chooses on his own.

A formal handwriting program is not necessary, but may be used if desired. Some resources that AmblesideOnline members have enjoyed are: A Reason for Handwriting is an excellent choice. Handwriting Without Tears may be useful for a student who has struggled with handwriting. Getty Dubay Italics workbooks Getty Dubay-type free fonts at this link or this link Create lined handwriting practice paper with your own text and choice of font, line sizes for free Penmanship Practice Worksheets at DonnaYoung.

To download the fonts, right-click and choose "save target as. Then go to My Computer on your desktop, open the C drive, open the Windows folder, open the Fonts folder and then right click and paste the font into that folder. Read more about copywork at this link. Narration, or oral composition, utilizes many mental functions. Each time your child narrates, he is mentally composing his thoughts and communicating through words.

Many specific comprehension skills are learned through narration - sequencing, main idea, details - and it's also good practice in listening and in speaking skills.

Charlotte Mason had her pupils narrating multiple times per day, in various ways, and even when each student could not narrate every time for every lesson, each student was prepared to narrate, because he never knew if he'd be called on to narrate or not.

Education is the science of relations, and narration is a relationship-building exercise. So AO recommends daily narration in just about every subject. Cutting back on narration and narration can be done in many ways reduces your child's opportunity to form lasting relationships with the books they read.

Written narration begins around age 10 or 11, starting with perhaps one written narration per week. The intent is to get the child putting his words on paper - spelling, writing, etc are taught with copywork and dictation, not narration. To de-emphasize grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors, it may help if the childs reads his narration aloud rather than the parent seeing it and discouraging the child's efforts by noting mistakes.

Written narrations will not be as long as oral ones - a child's first attempts may be only a sentence or two. But as he gets used to it, you can ask for longer narrations - five sentences, perhaps, and as you see ability grow, half a page. Editing and refining written work can be started after written narrations are easier - perhaps after a year or two of experience.

Eventually, older children high school should be doing written narrations of a half page or more daily. Written narration never completely replaces oral narration.

Creative writing will be an extension of written narration. Current thinking says you have to write to be a writer, but Charlotte Mason's thinking was more along the lines of "you have to read to be a writer. Some parents supplement not substitute! Narration - your child telling back what he's heard or read - is perhaps the most important key to making this kind of education work.

Narration requires the higher-level mental activities of processing, sorting, sequencing, sifting and articulating information. Filling in blanks in a workbook can't match narration as a comprehension exercise.

Oral narration is also the first step toward composition - the child becomes adept at articulating his thoughts in order, which is required in writing. Thoughts should be formulated in the mind before they are put on paper.

Although simply 'telling back' is the most focused form of narration and probably the most challenging to the mental processes we are seeking to develop, some parents occasionally break up the usual routine by using other forms of narration, such as acting out, playing out, or drawing what children have heard.

You can have a CM education without classical music, art, or Shakespeare-- but you can't have a CM education without narration from living books. In fact, it isn't too extreme to say that a lesson that isn't narrated may be a wasted lesson! Narration is a deceptively challenging skill that tasks various brain functions and takes practice. Don't get discouraged if your child's narrations seem to be lacking; it takes time:. I was so frustrated!

I felt like it just wasn't working. I regret leaving because I sold everything and had to re buy everything lol but here we are and had a successful Y1. Because narration is so crucial in a Charlotte Mason education, it is recommended that parents learn as much as they can in order to gain confidence in this method of learning. You can read more 25 pages worth! Also, Donna-Jean Breckenridge's thoughts on narration. Dictation, which reinforces spelling , is when the child writes something as the parent dictates.

This is not for testing purposes - the child should be familiar with the passage or sentence being written. You can let them "study" for it first so that he knows how to spell the words. He might close his eyes and try to picture the passage accurately. He might practice words he's unsure about spelling. Only when he feels he is ready does the dictation exercise begin. This makes it more likely that the child will spell words correctly the first time. Some children are natural spellers and seem to effortlessly absorb spelling from their copywork and reading.

For other children, dictation can help polish spelling skills because the child will have to memorize how to spell the word before the dictation exercise begins.

The parent then reads the passage slowly and clearly while the child writes it from memory. Some parents use dictation as a way to test their child's spelling, using misspelled words as a spelling list. But caution should be used because once a child sees or writes a word incorrectly, that incorrect spelling is recorded in his memory. Sand, rice, cornmeal, salt or shaving cream, which allows misspelled words to be wiped out immediately, is a fun way to practice writing for young children.

A child does not start dictation until he has mastered handwriting from copywork experience. His first dictation exercise may be a single sentence. By 10 or 11 years of age, he might be able to do a few sentences. Older children might do a paragraph or two once a week.

By 10 to 12 years of age, some children, especially those who don't learn visually or are dyslexic, will still be having trouble spelling and need extra help. Spelling Power is also used with success by some AO moms, but none of the Advisory members have seen it to assess its compatibilty with Charlotte Mason's methods.

Charlotte Mason introduced grammar in her schools when the students were in fourth grade, or about ten years old and taught from a traditional textbook, going very slowly, covering perhaps only ten pages in her book in a term. We suggest that parents wait until age ten to begin a grammar program.

Younger children will learn more about grammar from hearing it properly used. There is more to be learned from well-written books--reading them, listening to them, narrating them--adventures, Bible, poetry, and so on than filling in worksheets that drill such facts as what a synonym is.

Students who speak well are already on their way to learning formal grammar by example. Ruth Heller's World of Language picture book series can be used for years as optional fun reading if desired.

For later years, Charlotte Mason used a book she wrote herself; it has been reproduced and is sold under the title Simply Grammar. Some parents may prefer a book with more teacher helps. English For The Thoughtful Child may be easier to use for teaching the basics. We suggest spending one year in a good grammar book such as Our Mother Tongue: An Introductory Guide to English Grammar by Nancy Wilson , no earlier than year eight, then use the book as a reference when if needed.

A grammar reference is probably available online. Read more about grammar at this link. Mathematics How do I choose a math program? Math's not my favorite subject anyway, and I'm not comfortable without a textbook, but I read that Charlotte Mason didn't like textbooks. What did she use, and can I get a copy? Is there one best-of-all, most-CM math program out there that AmblesideOnline users like?

If you're interested in reading more about CM and math, I'd recommend a couple of helpful sites. First, look up Lynn Hocraffer's CM site and check out her math section --she gives page references for all the mentions of math in Charlotte Mason's writings. It's true that Charlotte Mason did not want math to take over the time that could be spent on the humanities, so every minute of the time we do spend on teaching math must count. Many of us are comfortable finding literature and other language-oriented materials that fit our childrens' specific needs; we need to become as demanding with what we require of our math materials, and as purposeful in the way we use them.

There are a number of good math programs and approaches that can be used with CM principles, e. Is one better than another? In the AmblesideOnline archives, there are posts from people whose children floundered with Making Math Meaningful and flourished with Math-U-See , and vice versa.

Right Start and Singapore Math usually get great reviews; Miquon Math is popular for the early grades. All these programs have websites with helpful information that you can use in comparing one to another; but the best way of all seems to be to see the materials up close if at all possible before making a decision.

Charlotte Mason did use math textbooks in her schools. I don't think you'd find the particular math books the PUS used too helpful, as besides being old and scarce, they're British lots of pounds-and-shillings questions.

If you want something very similar to these books, Ray's Arithmetic would be the American equivalent, and there are some AmblesideOnline users who do like Ray's because of its emphasis on mental arithmetic. What about trying to fit math into short lessons? There is nothing sacred about having a 15 minute time period for math. Even in the lower grades, Charlotte Mason's schedule allowed about half an hour for math, although that did include oral drill as well as problem solving.

If you need twenty minutes or thirty minutes, then do it! You know your child's needs and attention span. If you prefer, you could break up the math period do some math, do something else, do some more math.

Finally, don't worry too much about finishing a math book in one year. Work with each concept until the child has mastered it Take breaks where prudent, and work on something else for awhile between sessions of tackling a difficult concept.

Or incorporate math games, math library books, some math history. For anyone who wants to read about math education in greater detail, there are two books that have been recommended by a CM math educator. Science What is nature study, and what else does AmblesideOnline do for science? Charlotte Mason said that science should increase and feed our wonder and delight in the world around us. It should spark our admiration, both at the wonder of creation and the skill and wisdom of the Creator. It should put us on a first name basis, so to speak, with the natural world, which means we must know the names of the inhabitants and their surroundings, and it should introduce us to the laws that order our universe as well as the methods used to make scientific discoveries.

Charlotte Mason wanted students to have a broad base in topics such as botany, astronomy, and physiology, although her curriculum for the younger grades used mostly books on animals and other natural science, in addition to their own personal observations and collections.

Most importantly, science was to be taught as something wonderful in itself, beginning with a sense of reverence for God's world, rather than starting by tearing things apart for analysis.

Science should lead to a knowledge of the properties of substances and of the forces in the world around us. This must be first-hand knowledge of the things and forces, not simply knowing about them. It must be obtained by personal experience. Some science teachers today note that their students don't "get" higher-level science concepts because they don't have the childhood experience of being outside doing things like collecting tadpoles, watching butterflies, skipping stones, seeing plants sprout from seeds - they have no sensory experience on which to "hang" those concepts.

CM thought that a child's foundation of first-hand experience should naturally lead to scientific methods of thinking, accurate observation, careful comparison of results, and the formulation of general principles.

It should introduce children to a world of absorbing interests that will enlist their sympathy or arouse their enthusiasm, a world of mystery that fascinates with promise of discovery and fuller knowledge, a world of wonder and beauty that we cannot explain, but in which we walk reverently with uncovered head. In the early years, AmblesideOnline uses nature study - observing and recording nature - as the means to familiarize children with the wonders of nature in their immediate surroundings.

Nature walks are encouraged, and children should record their observations in a notebook, preferably by making paintings in a Nature Notebook. For more information about the paint technique that Charlotte Mason's students used in their notebooks, read this tutorial on dry-brushing.

Parents are to use The Handbook of Nature Study and field guides to provide correct names and information about what their children see. In the middle years, scientific properties are demonstrated with common items. AO's Living Science plan for Years is still in the works, but Apologia or other materials are and will continue to be a viable alternative option for high school.

Literary books detailing the intricate details and ways of animals and nature are used throughout, such as Pagoo about a hermit crab , The Sea Around Us about sea life , Madame How and Lady Why about earth science and Jean Henri Fabre's descriptive books about insects. Charlotte Mason taught the history of her own country alongside world history, doing both side by side chronologically.

It hasn't been practical for AmblesideOnline to duplicate that totally because Charlotte Mason's country England had a long, rich history, unlike the US, whose history is only known only vaguely before the 's. Every class in Charlotte Mason's schools followed the same period of history, covering that historical era for each level, every term.

This is a mammoth task that the organizers of this curriculum were not prepared to undertake with each new term - it simply isn't practical for the advisory to schedule books for each historical period for every level. Therefore, an equally satisfactory method was developed whereby each AmblesideOnline student will study history in a chronological sequence. You cannot know American history well without knowing something of the history of England, for they are parts of the same story.

We just finished our 4th week of Year 9. Constitution, etc. You understand the Washington family of Virginia's ancestry if you know who the Cavaliers were. How weird it would be to read about the colonists grieving against George III if you didn't know the history about the monarchy of Britain.

I know the question comes up often about why start with British History for those on the North American continent. Being on this side of it now going through the American revolution for the second time in the AO cycle , it's crystal-clear why.

Trust it, American AO users. AmblesideOnline schedules two rotations of history in a child's year school career, starting with the early middle ages year one and progressing chronologically until year 6.

At this point Greek and Roman history are introduced mythology and ancient history are covered throughout the years, beginning in Year 2, via myths and Plutarch's Lives This enables students to deal with meatier works suitable for older readers.

The chronological sequence is continued in HEO House of Education Online, AmblesideOnline's upper years from year 7, and in Year 12 Greco-Roman ideas will be approached again as a backdrop to current thoughts and ideas.

This, again, enables us to present the students with the really complex material necessary to really grapple with the ideas involved. Mythology and ancient civilizations are saved for later years rather than started in year 1. Why doesn't AO do it that way? The reason is very simple. Charlotte Mason wrote new programs for the entire school every single term, all her life, and after she died, the job was taken over by someone else.

We love AmblesideOnline, and we love the moms who use it, but we have other obligations and are unable to continually re-create AO, so we created a static program. This also enables every Year's book to be re-used by succeeding children in the family. If you read CM's thoughts about teaching, her primary concerns were that it should be chronological and that literature should correlate with the period studied if possible.

The only thing she said about "cycles" was that when you got to the end, you went back to the beginning. Our two six year cycles, linked by a couple of terms on ancient Greece and Rome, have delighted families for over fifteen years. We know it works well, is consistent with CM's principles, and it violates none of them. If four-year cycles are really important for you, you may prefer another program. We don't mind being the alternative to that, and offering people a more leisurely six-year option.

Because, after all, education is the science of relations, and taking a little more time with each period of history gives you a chance to spend more time with it and get to know it a little better.

Don't get too flustered or worried if your child starts later in an AO year somewhere in the middle of history. It's less important where in history a child begins, and more important that he dig in wherever he happens to start.

If the interest is kindled, children will have the rest of their lives to fill in the gaps. A Parents' Review article from CM's PNEU school in says, "Now the Parents' Review School is like all other schools in this, that it is impossible for new children when they join a class to begin at the beginning of every subject taught in that class; nor does it really matter.

Historical and scientific subjects have only a nominal beginning, the important thing is that children should grip where they alight, should take hold of the subject with keen interest, and then in time they will feel their own way backwards and forwards.

Charlotte Mason said, "It is a great thing to possess a pageant of history in the background of one's thoughts. We may not be able to recall this or that circumstance, but, 'the imagination is warmed'; we know that there is a great deal to be said on both sides of every question and are safe from crudities in opinion and rashness in action. The present becomes enriched for us with the wealth of all that has gone before.

Many history texts were considered with the goal of finding books that were well-written rather than too simplistic and not rigidly one-sided as well as widely available to members. Books that are out of print but still copyrighted and whose texts, thus, could not be posted online could not be used. Marshall, who wrote the English history book that Charlotte Mason used in her schools. An Island Story, by the same author, is beautifully written for a younger child, and thus was selected for the earliest AmblesideOnline Years.

AmblesideOnline members voluntarily scanned both books and made them available in etext form for use in the curriculum, for which we are very grateful.

Children need to make their own connections to what they are learning, and these connections are stronger when they occur naturally instead of being artificially constructed, as can happen with 'canned' unit studies where all literature and other material are integrated. Prepacking a time period for a child can stifle relationship building by being just a little too 'pat'.

That is not to say that including literature, or poetry or music from a time period that is being studied is wrong - it certainly is not, and provides a richer understanding of the culture and times.

I am referring to 'closed loop' programs, where little crafts are done and little poems are included with little to no regard for literary value than because they are 'relevant'. Some parents like to supplement with books by Genevieve Foster or Landmark books, but AmblesideOnline's schedule is full enough that users find little or no need to enhance the historical period being studied with unscheduled books. We do not officially recommend supplementing more than two stories or biographies in a term, if at all.

You can see listings of Landmark book titles in historical order at this link or this link. If you wish to read additional English history, AmblesideOnline recommends Dickens' "A Child's History of England," although, as a caution, Dickens tends to be one-sided in his anti-Catholic opinions; boys will especially like its dramatic action. Marshall has prompted some negative reviews challenging its accuracy.

The reviews do not offer much on which to base their complaints; and in the opinion of the Advisory, who reviewed many possible books on this topic, This Country of Ours is accurate and well written enough to make it our top choice for American history at this level.

You may take note of the Advisory's letter regarding "This Country of Ours" at this link. Should students memorize a timeline? What does it mean to "know" history? What is the point of learning history?

How does Charlotte Mason's approach to history reflect her push againt mechanism? Brandy Vencel and Karen Glass did a podcast on all things history at Afterthoughts. Listen here. Children studying two different streams of history concurrently typically do not experience difficulty keeping the events and eras straight in their minds.

Keeping a timeline either on a wall or in a century book - see links below for descriptions provides a visual experience with the progression of history that helps immensely in this regard.

We recommend that the student should also mark events on maps. Merely showing a child a timeline or map is passive; Charlotte Mason wanted the child to be an active participant by placing events and people on a timeline and map himself.

Children should start keeping their own timeline from about ten years of age. History Through the Ages is a book of timeline images published by Amy Pak, but you can find images for your own timeline by doing a clip-art image search on your own.

Type in a subject Like George Washington and it searches the web for any pictures with this name. As with most other subjects, Charlotte Mason wanted geography to be a subject that fed children's minds with real knowledge. She summarizes her approach to geography this way: "A map--to put the place in position--and then, all about it, is what we want. This kind of knowledge is conveyed in well-told stories or biographies.

Charlotte Mason asks us, "Do our Geography lessons take the children there? Do, they experience, live in , our story of the call of Abraham? AmblesideOnline has selected books for each year that will take your children "there" -- such as Holling's Seabird and Paddle to the Sea, Marco Polo, Longitude -- and give them a chance to experience geography as a living subject.

Maps are an important aspect of all our reading. A United States map, a world map, and a globe if possible should be easily accessible at all times. In history, literature, and current events, as well as geography reading, taking a moment to locate a place before or after the reading should be a frequent practice. Charlotte Mason also included "map work" in her curriculum -- where the children gave to the map the same kind of full attention demanded of picture study or history.

Her students learned to locate countries, and identify the main cities and bodies of water, as well as the countries that bordered each place. Il processo della produzione di un libro era lungo e laborioso.

Infine, il libro veniva rilegato dal rilegatore. Esistono testi scritti in rosso o addirittura in oro, e diversi colori venivano utilizzati per le miniature. A volte la pergamena era tutta di colore viola e il testo vi era scritto in oro o argento per esempio, il Codex Argenteus. Per tutto l'Alto Medioevo i libri furono copiati prevalentemente nei monasteri, uno alla volta.

Il sistema venne gestito da corporazioni laiche di cartolai , che produssero sia materiale religioso che profano. Questi libri furono chiamati libri catenati. Vedi illustrazione a margine. L' ebraismo ha mantenuto in vita l'arte dello scriba fino ad oggi. Anche gli arabi produssero e rilegarono libri durante il periodo medievale islamico , sviluppando tecniche avanzate di calligrafia araba , miniatura e legatoria.

Col metodo di controllo, solo "gli autori potevano autorizzare le copie, e questo veniva fatto in riunioni pubbliche, in cui il copista leggeva il testo ad alta voce in presenza dell'autore, il quale poi la certificava come precisa". In xilografia , un'immagine a bassorilievo di una pagina intera veniva intagliata su tavolette di legno, inchiostrata e usata per stampare le copie di quella pagina.

Questo metodo ebbe origine in Cina , durante la Dinastia Han prima del a. I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente.

I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le immagini che furono creati prima del in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli. Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria capsa , il leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica.

Leggio con libri catenati , Biblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. Incunabolo del XV secolo. Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti. Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddisti , il primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo. Queste macchine potevano stampare 1. Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo.

Hart , la prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati. I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta. Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossura , era di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolo , mentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia.

Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio. Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura.

Non facendo parte delle segnature , non sono mai contati come pagine. Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio. Le sguardie sono solitamente di carta diversa da quella dell'interno del volume e possono essere bianche, colorate o decorate con motivi di fantasia nei libri antichi erano marmorizzate.

Il colophon o colofone, che chiude il volume, riporta le informazioni essenziali sullo stampatore e sul luogo e la data di stampa. In origine nei manoscritti era costituito dalla firma o subscriptio del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo, che conteneva, talvolta in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l' insegna dell'editore. Sopravvive ancor oggi, soprattutto con la dicitura Finito di stampare.

Nel libro antico poteva essere rivestita di svariati materiali: pergamena, cuoio, tela, carta e costituita in legno o cartone. Poteva essere decorata con impressioni a secco o dorature. Ciascuno dei due cartoni che costituiscono la copertina viene chiamato piatto. Nel XIX secolo la coperta acquista una prevalente funzione promozionale.

Ha caratterizzato a lungo l'editoria per l'infanzia e oggi, ricoperto da una "sovraccoperta", costituisce il tratto caratteristico delle edizioni maggiori. Le "alette" o "bandelle" comunemente dette "risvolti di copertina" sono le piegature interne della copertina o della sovraccoperta vedi infra.

Generalmente vengono utilizzate per una succinta introduzione al testo e per notizie biografiche essenziali sull'autore.

Di norma, riporta le indicazioni di titolo e autore. I libri con copertina cartonata in genere sono rivestiti da una "sovraccoperta". I tagli possono essere al naturale, decorati o colorati in vario modo. In questi ultimi casi, si parla di "taglio colore", nel passato usati per distinguere i libri religiosi o di valore dalla restante produzione editoriale, utilizzando una spugna imbevuta di inchiostri all' anilina anni del XX secolo. Riporta solitamente titolo, autore, e editore del libro.

Sovente riporta un motto. Assente nel libro antico. I primi incunaboli e manoscritti non avevano il frontespizio, ma si aprivano con una carta bianca con funzione protettiva. Nel XVII secolo cede la parte decorativa all' antiporta e vi compaiono le indicazioni di carattere pubblicitario riferite all'editore, un tempo riservate al colophon. In epoca moderna, le illustrazioni e parte delle informazioni si sono trasferite sulla copertina o sulla sovraccoperta e altre informazioni nel verso del frontespizio.

I nervi possono essere lasciati a vista e messi in evidenza attraverso la "staffilatura" , oppure nascosti in modo da ottenere un dorso liscio. Nel libro moderno i nervi sono di norma finti, apposti per imitare l'estetica del libro antico e conferire importanza al libro.

Se esse fanno parte integrante del testo sono chiamate illustrazioni. Esse hanno una numerazione di pagina distinta da quella del testo; vengono impresse su una carta speciale, quasi sempre una carta patinata. Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Disambiguazione — "Libri" rimanda qui. Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Libri disambigua. Thus lead time represents the turnover of money. A shorter lead time means better use and turnover of resources, more flexibility in meeting customer needs, and a lower cost of operations.

Muda in the area of lead time presents a golden opportunity for kaizen. Ways to cut lead time include improving and speeding feedback of customer orders and communicating better with suppliers; this reduces the inventory of raw materials and supplies.

Streamlining and increasing the flexibility of gemba operations also can shorten production lead time. When everyone in an organization works toward this goal, there is a positive impact on cost-effectiveness. Gemba kaizen can be the starting point for improvements in all three categories. Any gemba that is not sufficiently reliable or robust cannot sustain improvements made in other functional areas, such as product development and process designs, purchasing, marketing, and sales.

Kaizen should start at the gemba. To put it another way, by carrying out gemba kaizen and identifying the problems manifested at the work site, we can identify the shortcomings of other supporting departments, such as research and development, design, quality control, industrial engineering, purchasing, sales, and marketing. In other words, gemba kaizen helps to identify short- comings in upstream management. Delivery Delivery refers to the timely delivery of the volume of products or services.

The challenge to management is how to live up to delivery commitments while meeting quality and cost targets. A just-in-time JIT system addresses both cost and delivery issues, but it can be introduced only if a good QA system is in place.

By eliminating all kinds of non-value-adding activities, JIT helps to reduce costs. Indeed, synchronizing the flow of goods and services using JIT is a practical way to drastically cut costs for companies that have never tried it before.

Equally important, JIT addresses delivery. The conventional approach has been to deliver products out of finished-goods inventory, with the customer paying for the added cost. Through various kaizen activities, JIT makes it possible to build such flexibility into the management system see Chapter It is possible to realize improved quality, cost, and delivery simultane- ously by employing various management systems that have been developed over the years and thus to make the company far more profitable than it has been in the past.

Quality Improvement and Cost Reduction Are Compatible The recurring theme of this chapter has been that improving quality and reducing cost are compatible objectives. In fact, quality is the foundation on which both cost and delivery can be built. Without creating a firm system to ensure quality, there can be no hope of building effective cost-management and delivery systems. Take, for example, international competition in the high-end consumer goods market. Suppose that one company subscribes to the old philosophy that better quality costs more money.

The company has a reputation for world-class quality, but its prices are very high. Suppose that a new company emerges as a competitor. This company believes that better quality and lower cost are compatible and has succeeded in building a product of equal or better quality to the first company, but at a lower price. How will the first company cope with its new rival? At a time when customers are demanding ever-better QCD, management must emphasize the proper priority to achieve all three: Quality first!

Resist the temptation to cut costs at the expense of quality! And do not sacrifice quality for delivery! Many organizations have achieved great things through gemba kaizen and have made a difference in the lives of people. However, one area stands out as a consistent weakness of even the best organizations. It is the proper use of standards.

This has become especially evident over the last decade as kaizen and variously named continuous improvement strategies grow in popularity worldwide, but sadly much of the gains are lost because they have built a weak founda- tion of standards. Daily business activities function according to certain agreed-on formulas. These formulas, when written down explicitly, become standards. Successful management on a day-to-day level boils down to one precept: Maintain and improve standards.

This means not only adhering to current technological, managerial, and operating standards but also improving current processes in order to elevate current standards to higher levels.

Maintain and Improve Standards Whenever things go wrong at the gemba, such as producing rejects or dissatisfying customers, management should seek out the root causes, take actions to remedy the situation, and change the work procedure to eliminate the problem. In kaizen terminology, managers should implement the standardize-do-check-act SDCA cycle. With current standards in place and workers doing their jobs according to those standards with no abnormalities, the process is under control. The next step is to adjust the status quo and raise standards to a higher level.

This entails the plan-do-check-act PDCA cycle. As will be explained later, standards are the best way to ensure quality and the most cost-effective way to do the job.

In a case such as this, each customer complaint gives rise to a need to review the existing standards. Depending on the level of sophistication involved, management might find that no standards existed at all to start with and that simply adding standards would make the system more robust. However, not every aspect of our work needs close scrutiny.

For instance, if the hotel management had received no complaints from its guests, it might have concluded that its current way of handling fax messages was adequate.

In such a case, one could look for kaizen in other areas rather than trying to improve fax-handling procedures. An improved fax-handling procedure might have saved time and work for the staff, thus freeing them for other work. We should establish priorities in reviewing standards based on such factors as quality, cost, delivery, safety, the urgency and the gravity of the consequences, and the severity of customer complaints. In daily routine work what I call maintenance , workers either do the job the right way, causing no abnormalities, or encounter abnormalities, which should trigger a review of existing standards and perhaps lead to establishing new ones.

The first requirement of management remains that of maintaining standards. The system is under control when standards exist that are followed by workers who produce no abnormalities. Once the system is under control, the next challenge is to improve the status quo. In line with the kaizen spirit, making better use of the existing resources would be the best way to cope with such a demand.

To meet the goal, operators must change their way of doing their jobs. The existing standards must be upgraded through kaizen activities. At this stage, we have left the maintenance stage and moved on to the improvement stage. Figure 4. In this context, there are two types of standards. One is managerial standards, which are necessary for managing employees for administrative purposes and which include administrative rules, personnel guidelines and policies, job descriptions, guidelines for preparing expense accounts, and so on.

The other is called operational standards, which have to do with the way people do a job to realize quality, cost, and delivery QCD. While managerial standards relate to the internal purpose of managing employees, operational standards relate to the external demand to achieve QCD to satisfy customers.

The standards referred to in this book are operational and point up a big disparity between Japanese and Western companies. Japan enthusias- tically embraces the idea of establishing standards, whereas the West looks on standards with a certain degree of cynicism. In extreme cases, standards in the West are seen as something that goes against human nature. There is a feeling that people should not be bound by standards and that human beings should be given maximum freedom to do their job the way they want to.

When management talks about control, it means control over the process, not the person. Management manages employees so that employees can control the process.

Following standards is like driving a car. The driver must follow certain regulations, and yet, as a result, he or she gains the freedom to go where he or she wants to go. Likewise, when workers follow standards and do the job right, the customer is satisfied with the product or service, the company prospers, and the workers can look forward to job security.

Key Features of Standards Standards have the following key features: 1. Standards represent the best, easiest, and safest way to do a job. Standards reflect many years of wisdom and know-how on the part of employees in doing their jobs.

When management maintains and improves a certain way of doing something, making sure that all the workers on different shifts follow the same procedures, those standards become the most efficient, safe, and cost-effective way of doing the job. Standards offer the best way to preserve know-how and expertise. If an employee knows the best way to do the job and leaves without sharing that knowledge, his or her know-how also will leave.

Only by standard- izing and institutionalizing such know-how within the company does it stay in the company, regardless of the comings and goings of its individual workers. Standards provide a way to measure performance.

With established standards, managers can evaluate job performance. Without standards, there is no fair way to do this. Key Features of Standards 55 4. Standards show the relationship between cause and effect. Having no standards or not following standards invariably leads to abnormalities, variability, and waste.

When people first begin skydiving, they depend on their instructor to fold their parachutes. As they become more experienced, they begin folding their own parachutes with the help of the instructor. Before they can become full-fledged skydivers, they must learn how to fold their parachutes correctly by themselves. Suppose that a skydiver has folded her parachute for the first time in her life and is going to jump tomorrow. How many times does she need to fold it before she is convinced that everything is okay?

The answer is that she should need to do it only once. The way to fold the parachute today is the best, easiest, and safest way, reflecting the experience of many thousands of parachutists—and the aftermath of various tragedies.

How can we change and improve the process to prevent a recurrence? By the time you find it out, it may be too late. Standards provide a basis for both maintenance and improvement. By definition, following standards means maintenance, and upgrading standards means improvement. Without standards, we have no way of knowing whether we have made improvements or not. When variability occurs owing to a lack of standards, one must introduce new standards. If variability occurs even with adherence to standards, management first must determine the cause and then either revise and upgrade the existing standards or train the operators to do the job as specified by the standards.

Perhaps something about the existing standards is unclear, or perhaps the operators need more training to do the job properly. Where there is no standard, there can be no improvement.

For these reasons, standards are the basis for both maintenance and improvement. Standards can be described as a set of visual signs that show how to do the job. As such, standards should communicate in a simple, understandable manner. Normally, standards come in the form of written documents, but at times, pictures, sketches, and photos may facilitate understanding.

Once standards are established, the next step is to train operators to such an extent that it becomes second nature for them to do the job according to the standards. These standards no doubt serve as reminders to operators.

Even more important, though, they help managers to check whether work is progressing normally. If maintaining and improving standards are the two major tasks of management, the primary job of gemba supervisors is to see whether standards are being maintained and, at the appropriate time, whether plans to upgrade current stan- dards are being implemented. As already stated, standardization is the last step of the five gemba principles. It is also the next-to-the-last step in the kaizen stories, explained later in this chapter.

Only when we stan- dardize the effect of a kaizen project can we expect that the same problem does not recur. Quality control means variability control. Often, company A turns out to be better than company B in quality— not because A is superior in all aspects of the processes but because company A is making concerted efforts to ensure that all the processes are followed as specified in standards, whereas company B finds that one or two processes are not always followed.

Thus standardization is an integral part of quality assurance QA , and without standards, there can be no way to build a viable quality system. However, Shima found that after these standards were put into practice, they were not always usable. In order to remain practical, they had to be reviewed and upgraded constantly.

Thus the journey to quality improve- ment at the company meant a never-ending review of existing standards. If you believe that standards are writ in stone, you will fail. When the environment changes, standards change as well. You have to believe that standards are there to be changed. Then you review the standards and either correct the deviation from the standard or change the standard. It is a never-ending process of PDCA! When quality problems arise with the customer, the company uses the system diagram to explain how it will solve the problem.

In view of the fact that the term kaizen story is used more often in other countries these days, the term kaizen story is used throughout this book. The kaizen story follows the plan-do-check-act PDCA cycle. Steps 1 through 4 relate to P plan , step 5 relates to D do , step 6 relates to C check , and steps 7 and 8 relate to A act. The kaizen story format helps anybody to solve problems based on data analysis. One of its merits is to help managers visualize and communicate the problem-solving process.

It is also an effective way to keep records of kaizen activities. Various problem-solving tools are often shown in the kaizen story to help the reader understand the process. The kaizen story includes the following standardized steps: 1. Selecting the theme. The story begins with the reason why the particular theme was selected. Often the themes are determined in line with management policies or depend on the priority, importance, urgency, or economics of current circumstances.

Understanding the current status and setting objectives. Before starting the project, current conditions must be understood and reviewed. One way to do this is to go to the gemba and follow the five gemba principles. Another way is to collect data. Analyzing the data thus collected to identify root causes.

Establishing countermeasures based on the data analysis. Implementing countermeasures. Confirming the effects of the countermeasures. Establishing or revising the standards to prevent recurrence.

Reviewing the preceding processes and working on the next steps. I have found that many times a standards exists but is not used in the true meaning of a standard—a method to be followed, improved, and revised. Today, the so-called A3 problem-solving method has become increas- ingly popular. The A3 refers only to the paper size that is the standard for summarizing the problem-solving story. The A3 problem-solving approach comes from Toyota, is based on the kaizen story, and follows an eight-step approach.

In an effort to standardize and strengthen problem solving as Toyota operations became increasingly globalized, in the early s, the Toyota Business Practice TBP was born.

The eight steps of the TBP problem-solving approach are 1. Clarify the problem. Break down the problem. Set a target to be achieved. Analyze the root cause. Develop countermeasures. See countermeasures through. Evaluate both results and process. Standardize successful processes. The TBP approach can seem very simple and quite similar to other eight-step approaches. As with many methodologies in kaizen, knowing a few simple key points and practicing them diligently makes the difference see Figure 4.

Chris Schrandt is a senior consultant from the Kaizen Institute with over 30 years of experience in the field of quality. Chris shared some lessons learned from teaching the TBP approach to a wide variety of manufacturing and service companies after leaving Toyota. About the typical approach to A3 and TBP problem solving, Chris shares: Not enough importance is placed on the problem statement itself. Clarify the problem 2. Break down the problem P 3. Set a target 4.

Root cause analysis 5. Develop countermeasures D 6. See countermeasures through 7. Evaluate both results C and process 8. Standardize and share successful practices A Figure 4. The more time spent getting the problem statement right, the less time will be needed to actually address the problem.

There are many tools and methods for root cause analysis, but the one you must know and use is five-whys analysis. It is a simple and powerful tool, much like a chainsaw, and must be used properly and logically to arrive at potential root causes.

The properly written problem-solving story connects the problem statement through the root cause analysis to the countermeasure action plan. The A3 should make sense read backwards or forwards. People want a formula, a template to fill out to arrive at the answer. Resist the temptation to turn A3 thinking into a form-filling exercise. The news is filled with so many companies that fail to follow their own standards or to adhere to their own problem-solving process.

This is true even of Toyota! I asked Chris Schrandt why so many companies fail to consistently follow a standardized approach to problem solving. He replied: If a management team is too busy putting out many fires daily, this will distract from problem solving of any kind.

Many times they are working on too many things, the wrong things. They have jumped to solutions rather than followed a problem-solving approach. Sometimes even after sorting and applying Pareto analysis to the issues, none clearly stand out as the vital few things that need to be done to put out many fires.

So we throw money at all of them. Instead, the team that follows a standard problem-solving approach will be able to start with the recurring problems that they believed they had already countermeasured, putting safeguards and standards in place. Problem recurrence indicates either that the problem recurred because of a different root cause, the standards put in place were not followed, or they did not actually get to the true root cause the first time.

There is no doubt that what we see at Toyota is the result of many years of experiments, both successful and failed. We must adopt best practices such as these, adapt them to our situation, and do gemba kaizen to build standards in our own way.

These certification programs place much emphasis on standardization of the key processes and continual improvement. In kaizen terms, the standards are the best way to do the job, and gemba kaizen such as muda elimination and housekeeping 5S in particular should precede writing a standard.

Writing down the working process of the gemba as it is now in great detail may be required for certifying the process but is useless if the current process contains much muda and variability. Once standards have been established, improvement of those standards must follow. Thus it is imperative that gemba kaizen activities be carried out before applying for certification, as well as upgrading the standards after certification has been awarded.

Thus gemba kaizen should become an integral part of getting inter- national certification, and after having received it, gemba kaizen should be a means to upgrade such standards on a continual basis. One of the kaizen consultants once shared his first encounter with the magic power of standardization as follows: In , I was a manager for a large electronics company in Europe.

I was responsible for transferring know-how and deliv- ering machines from our factory to a Japanese electronics com- pany with which we had a joint-venture agreement. Before we delivered the equipment, the Japanese company sent four operators into our factory to study our production process, where 20 fully automated lines were running on three shifts. Each line produced 2, semiconductor diodes per hour, with a yield of 98 percent. Kaizen and International Quality Standards 63 About six months after the Japanese plant had begun operations, we received a letter from them thanking us for our cooperation and for the precision of our machinery.

They also noted that their yield was We discussed this, and with mutual consent from the gemba observers who had gone to your country, we decided on the best way to standardize the process. Whatever triggers the process of work in the service company, conditions that exist in the work process complicate the work unnecessarily Are there too many forms? As Figure 2. Kaizen at any company—whether it is involved in a manufacturing or a service industry—should start with three activities: standardization, 5S, and muda elimination.

These activities involve no new management technologies and theories. In fact, such words as housekeeping and muda do not appear in management textbooks. They therefore do not excite the imagination of managers, who are accustomed to keeping abreast of the latest technologies.

However, once they understand the implications of these three pillars, they become excited at the prospect of the tremendous benefits these activities can bring to the gemba. Good Housekeeping in Five Steps The five steps of housekeeping, with their Japanese names, are as follows: 1.

Seiri: Distinguish between necessary and unnecessary items in the gemba, and discard the latter. Seiton: Arrange all items remaining after seiri in an orderly manner.

Seiso: Keep machines and working environments clean. Seiketsu: Extend the concept of cleanliness to oneself, and continuously practice the preceding three steps. Shitsuke: Build self-discipline and make a habit of engaging in 5S by establishing standards. Sort: Separate out all that is unnecessary, and eliminate it. Straighten: Put essential things in order so that they can be accessed easily.

Scrub: Clean everything—tools and workplaces—removing stains, spots, and debris and eradicating sources of dirt. Systematize: Make cleaning and checking routine. Standardize: Standardize the preceding four steps to make the process one that never ends and can be improved on. A Five Cs Campaign 1. Clear out: Determine what is necessary and unnecessary, and dispose of the latter.

Configure: Provide a convenient, safe, and orderly place for everything, and keep it there. Clean and check: Monitor and restore the condition of working areas during cleaning. Conform: Set the standard, train and maintain. Custom and practice: Develop the habit of routine maintenance, and strive for further improvement. Garbage-strewn streets and parks, unclean and decaying public facilities, and vandalism and graffiti all contribute to a deteriorating visual environ- ment, sending a message to visitors and residents alike that nobody cares.

The situation is a vicious circle—the worse things look, the less people care—this is human nature, the same in the city as in a company.

In October , three major Romanian cities decided to experiment with kaizen to reverse this trend. The driving force behind the 5S initiatives was to improve the public image of these cities. Organizers hoped to instill a sense of pride among all civic workers and citizens, as well as lend a sense of ownership that would encourage them to help keep their city facilities clean and tidy.

They recognized that to really succeed with kaizen, it is necessary to get everybody involved. Under the guidance of the Kaizen Institute Romania, the cities held a series of training sessions, structured planning meetings, and a publicity campaign. Boosted by their own kaizen successes, these organizations were happy to provide material support, as well as volunteers to help implement 5S.

Strong support also was obtained from the public authorities of the participating cities, including the municipalities of Brasov and Timisoara, as well as the county council and municipalities of Alba Iulia. Once their support was assured, specific areas were targeted for 5S, and 50 to volunteers were placed in each city. Renowned kaizen leader Yoshihito Tanaka, president of the Clean Up Japan Association and president of electronics company Tokai Shine Industrial Group, also was invited to join the project because of his extensive experience with 5S public cleaning events.

Further support was provided for the city of Brasov by other Kaizen Institute representatives from Japan and Italy. Each city was responsible for its own 5S project, and each city held three kinds of daily meetings inspired by a gemba kaizen work site.

Participants were encouraged to openly discuss various issues related to 5S. Volunteers would meet to receive training on explicit 5S methods and then would proceed to clean up areas designated by the local municipality. Volunteers would provide feedback, press releases would be written, local media representatives were met with, and future initiatives were planned see Figure 5. The cleanup teams focused on high-profile areas in their cities. In Alba Iulia, a team that included volunteers of all ages revitalized The Fortress, a national historical icon.

Although economic conditions in Romania are tougher than those in Japan, I have rarely seen so many people as motivated to apply 5S in their city. I hope that this event encourages the expansion of kaizen culture worldwide.

Seiri Sort The first step of housekeeping, seiri, entails classifying items in the gemba into two categories—necessary and unnecessary—and discarding or removing the latter from the gemba.

A ceiling on the number of necessary items should be established. All sorts of objects can be found in the gemba. A close look reveals that only a small number of them are needed in daily work; many others either will never be used or will be needed only in the distant future. The gemba is full of unused machines, jigs, dies and tools, rejects, work-in-process, raw materials, supplies and parts, shelves, containers, desks, workbenches, files of documents, carts, racks, pallets, and other items.

An easy rule of thumb is to remove anything that will not be used within the next 30 days. Seiri often begins with a red tag campaign. Select one area of the gemba as the site for seiri. Members of the designated 5S team go to the gemba with handfuls of red tags and place them on items they believe are unnecessary. The larger the red tags and the greater their number, the better. By the end of the campaign, the area may be covered with hundreds of red tags, inviting comparison with a grove of maple trees in the fall.

Sometimes gemba employees may find red tags placed on items they actually need. In order to keep such items, employees must demonstrate the necessity of doing so.

Otherwise, everything with a red tag on it is removed from the gemba. Things that have no reason to stay in the gemba, no apparent future usage and no intrinsic value, are thrown away. Things that will not be needed within the next 30 days but may be needed at some point in the future are moved to their rightful places such as the warehouse in the case of supplies.

Work-in-process that exceeds the needs of the gemba should be sent either to the warehouse or back to the process responsible for producing the surplus.

In the process of seiri, one can obtain valuable insights into how the company conducts its business. At one company, a red tag campaign unearthed enough supplies to last for 20 years! Both managers and operators have to see such extravagance in the gemba to believe it. This is a practical way for managers to get a glimpse at how people work. What kind of information do our purchasing people use in placing orders? What kind of communication is maintained between production scheduling and production?

Or do the staff responsible for purchasing just place orders when they think it is about time to do so? Based on what kind of information do they start production? It also shows insufficient flexibility to cope with changes in production scheduling. Eliminating unnecessary items via the red tag campaign also frees up space, enhancing flexibility in the use of the work area, because once unnecessary items have been discarded, only what is needed remains.

At this stage, the maximum number of items to be left in the gemba—parts and supplies, work-in-process, and so on—must be determined. Seiri can be applied to individuals working in offices as well.

For example, a typical desk has two or more drawers. Items are often placed in these drawers indiscriminately; side by side in a single drawer one may find not only pencils, ballpoint pens, erasers, writing pads, rubber bands, business cards, and scissors but also toothbrushes, candy, perfume, aspirin, coins, matches, cigars, costume jewelry, Band-Aids, and other objects.

These items first must be classified by use. In a desk with only two drawers, office supplies and personal items each should occupy one drawer. Next, the maximum number of each item is determined. Any items beyond the maxi- mum number are discarded—that is, removed from the drawer and taken to the office supply storage area in the corner of the room. Sometimes this storage area is called a recycling bank. When supplies in the drawers are exhausted, the employee goes to the recycling bank to replenish them.

In turn, the employee in charge of the bank watches the inventory and, when it drops to the designated minimum, orders more supplies. By paring to a minimum the supplies in our office drawers, we eliminate the need to shuffle through the collection of pencils, papers, and cosmetics to reach a desired item. Seiton Straighten Once seiri has been carried out, all unnecessary items have been removed from gemba, leaving only the minimum number needed.

But these needed items, such as tools, can be of no use if they are stored too far from the workstation or in a place where they cannot be found. This brings us to the next stage of 5S, seiton. A Detailed Look at the Five Steps of 5S 73 Seiton means classifying items by use and arranging them accordingly to minimize search time and effort.

To do this, each item must have a designated name, address, and volume. Not only the location but also the maximum number of items allowed in the gemba must be specified. For example, work-in-process cannot be produced in unlimited quantities. Instead, the floor space for the boxes containing the work must be delineated clearly by painting a rectangle to mark off the area, etc. A weight may be suspended from the ceiling above the boxes to make it impossible to stack more than five. When the maximum allowed level of inventory has been reached, the production in the previous process must stop; there is no need to produce more than what the following process can consume.

In this manner, seiton ensures the flow of a minimum number of items in the gemba from station to station on a first-in, first-out basis. Taiichi Ohno was once invited to visit the assembly line of another company.

Leave a minimum number on the line side, and send back all the excessive items to the previous process. In other words, each item should have its own address, and conversely, each space in the gemba also should have its designated address. Each wall should be numbered, using designations such as wall A1 and wall B2.

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