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Also Hire units. Cheap Austwide freight Finance can Priced From. Used only twice for demo on a Faresin 7. Additionally, wood from trees and bushes , can be used in a variety of products, such as wood pulp , cellulose in paper, celluloid in early photographic film, cellophane , and rayon a substitute for silk.

At the end of their normal usage, wood products can be burnt to obtain thermal energy or can be used as a fertilizer. The potential environmental damage that a wood economy could occasion include a reduction of biodiversity due to monoculture forestry the intensive cultivation of very few trees types ; and CO 2 emissions.

However, forests can aid in the reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus limit climate change. The wood economy was the starting point of the civilizations worldwide, since eras preceding the Paleolithic [ clarification needed ] and the Neolithic.

It necessarily preceded ages of metals by many millennia, as the melting of metals was possible only through the discovery of techniques to light fire usually obtained by the scraping of two very dry wooden rods and the building of many simple machines and rudimentary tools, as canes, club handles, bows , arrows , lances.

One of the most ancient handmade articles ever found is a polished wooden spear tip Clacton Spear , years old third interglacial period , that was buried under sediments in England, at Clacton-on-Sea. Successive civilizations such as the Egyptians and Sumerians built sophisticated objects of furniture. Many types of furniture in ivory and valuable woods have survived to our time practically intact, because secluded in inviolated secret tombs, they were protected from decay also by the dry environment of desert.

The main source of the lumber used in the world is forests , which can be classified as virgin , semivirgin and plantations. Much timber is removed for firewood by local populations in many countries, especially in the third world , but this amount can only be estimated, with wide margins of uncertainty.

In , the worldwide production of "Roundwood" officially counted wood not used as firewood , was about 1,,, cubic metres 2. In the s, the countries with the largest forest area were: Soviet Union approximately 8,, km 2 , Brazil 5,, km 2 , Canada 4,, km 2 , United States 3,, km 2 , Indonesia 1,, km 2 and Democratic Republic of Congo 1,, km 2. Other countries with important production and consumption of wood usually have a low density of population in relation to their territorial extension, here we can include countries as Argentina , Chile , Finland , Poland , Sweden, Ukraine.

By the rainforest areas of Brazil were reduced by a fifth respect of , to around 4,, km 2 ; the ground cleared was mainly destined for cattle pasture —Brazil is the world's largest exporter of beef with almost ,, head of cattle. Regarding the problem of climate change, it is known that burning forests increase CO 2 in the atmosphere, while intact virgin forest or plantations act as sinks for CO 2 , for these reasons wood economy fights greenhouse effect.

The amount of CO 2 absorbed depends on the type of trees, lands and the climate of the place where trees naturally grow or are planted. Moreover, by night plants do not photosynthesize , and produce CO 2 , eliminated the successive day.

Paradoxically in summer oxygen created by photosynthesis in forests near to cities and urban parks, interacts with urban air pollution from cars, etc. In a low-carbon economy , forestry operations will be focused on low-impact practices and regrowth. Forest managers will make sure that they do not disturb soil-based carbon reserves too much. Specialized tree farms will be the main source of material for many products.

Quick maturing tree varieties will be grown on short rotations in order to maximize output. Brazil has a long tradition in the harvesting of several types of trees with specific uses. Since the s, imported species of pine tree and eucalyptus have been grown mostly for the plywood and paper pulp industries.

Currently high-level research is being conducted, to apply the enzymes of sugar cane fermentation to cellulose in wood, in order to obtain methanol , but the cost is much higher when compared with ethanol derived from corn costs. There is a close relation in the forestry economy between these countries; they have many tree genera in common, and Canada is the main producer of wood and wooden items destined to the US, the biggest consumer of wood and its byproducts in the world.

The water systems of the Great Lakes , Erie Canal , Hudson River and Saint Lawrence Seaway to the east coast and the Mississippi River to the central plains and Louisiana allows transportation of logs at very low costs.

On the west coast , the basin of the Columbia River has plenty of forests with excellent timber. For many years products derived from trees in Canadian forests had been the most important export items of the country. Canada is the world leader in sustainable forest management practices. The species that are ideal for the many uses in this type of economy are those employed by arboriculture , that are very well known for their features and the need for certain types of ground and climates.

In Sweden, Finland and to an extent Norway, much of the land area is forested, the pulp and paper industry is one of the most significant industrial sectors. Chemical pulping produces an excess of energy, since the organic matter in black liquor , mostly lignin and hemicellulose breakdown products, is burned in the recovery boiler.

Considerable effort is directed towards increasing the value and usage of forest products by companies and by government projects. The burning of wood is currently the largest use of energy derived from a solid fuel biomass.

Wood fuel may be available as firewood e. Wood fuel can be used for cooking and heating through stoves and fireplaces , and occasionally for fueling steam engines and steam turbines that generate electricity. For many centuries many types of traditional ovens were used in order to benefit from the heat generated by wood combustion. Now, more efficient and clean solutions have been developed: advanced fireplaces with heat exchangers , wood-fired ovens , wood-burning stoves and pellet stoves , that are able to filter and separate pollutants centrifuging ashes with rotative filters , thus eliminating many emissions, also allowing to recover a higher quantity of heat that escaped with the chimney fumes.

Combustion of wood is, however, linked to the production of micro-environmental pollutants, as carbon dioxide CO 2 , carbon monoxide CO an invisible gas able to provoke irreversible saturation of blood 's hemoglobine , as well as nanoparticles. In Italy poplar has been proposed as a tree cultivated to be transformed into biofuels , because of the excellent ratio of energy extracted from its wood because of poplar's fast growing and capture of atmospheric carbon dioxide to the small amount of energy needed to cultivate, cut and transport the trees.

Populus x canadensis 'I', grows so fast that is able to reach 14 inches 36 cm in diameter and heights of feet 30 m in ten years.

Charcoal is the dark grey residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis , the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen. Charcoal can then be used as a fuel with a higher combustion temperature. Wood gas generator gasogen : is a bulky and heavy device but technically simple that transforms burning wood in a mix of molecular hydrogen H 2 , carbon monoxide CO , carbon dioxide CO 2 , molecular nitrogen N 2 and water vapor H 2 O.

In the time between World War I and World War II included, because of the lack of oil , in many countries, like Italy, France, Great Britain and Sweden, several gasoline -powered cars were modified, with the addition of a wood gas generator a " gasogen " , a device powered by wood, coal, or burnable waste, able to produce and purify gas that immediately, in the same vehicle, could power a slightly modified ICE engine of a standard car low-compression engine.

Carburetor had to be changed with an air-gas mixer. There were several setbacks, as the great reduction of maximum speed and the need to drive using low gears and wisely dosing the amount of air. In modern cars, modified with a wood gas generator, gas emissions CO, CO 2 and NOx are lower to those of the same vehicle running with gasoline keeping the same catalytic converter. Rarely, when unwise wine -makers mix small chunks of wood and leaves with grapes, methanol can be found as a pollutant of the blend of water, ethanol and other substances derived from grape 's fermentation.



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