12.12.2020  Author: admin   Cool Things To Make Out Of Wood
Standard drawings, or example drawings, are intended for informational purposes only. The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this Web site is for the information and convenience of the reader. Several steel plates connect the two I-beams to each other via angle iron. This section includes standard drawings for signs, route markers, reassurance markers, mileage markers, and cairns. On Forest Service projects, these plans may not be wood bridge design plans us without Regional Engineer approval except for populating the Structure Table on page 1 for each bridge type. Winding route and rest spot beneath giant spruce.

A qualified engineer with trail bridge design experience must approve the use of these Standard Trail Bridge plans for each trail bridge project. Proper bridge siting and design includes many other aspects such as siting, hydrology, hydraulics, foundation, etc.

On Forest Service projects, these plans may not be modified without Regional Engineer approval except for populating the Structure Table on page 1 for each bridge type.

Non-Forest Service entities are welcome to use these trail bridge plans, but must take full responsibility for their use. We further recommend they seek review and approval from their qualified engineer of record for the project. Regional Bridge Engineers retain editable. This section does not include any standard drawings, but is reserved and used for the identification of specialty structures in project packages, such as tunnels, snow sheds, etc.

Refer to Specifications Section - Specialty Structures. This section includes standard drawings for work items that are considered incidental to major work items, such as seeding, fertilizing and mulching, removal of structures, etc. This section does not include any standard drawings, but includes material specifications used for work items included in project package. Examples include aggregate, rock, geosynthetics, material for timber structures, etc.

Refer to Specifications Section - Materials. If you have questions or comments, please contact FS-Trail Management at: fstrailmanagement usda.

These Standard Trail Plans and Specifications were revised and developed with extensive involvement and expertise from Jonathan Kempff, P. This project was sponsored and funded in large part by the Federal Highway Administration, Recreational Trails Program. The Forest Service, an agency of the U. Department of Agriculture USDA , has developed this information for the guidance of its employees, its contractors, and its cooperating Federal and State agencies.

The Forest Service assumes no responsibility for the interpretation or use of this information by anyone except its own employees. The use of trade, firm, or corporation names is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such use does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of any product or service to the exclusion of others that may be suitable. These materials were produced in cooperation with the Recreational Trails Program of the U.

The U. Government assumes no liability for the use of information contained in this document. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. These materials reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. For this bridge, which was designed with I-beams, the two foundation pieces that support the ends of the beams are called abutments. They also formed 2-foot wing walls at 45degrees on each end of the abutment.

A laser level is the primary tool to transfer the elevations determined by the surveyor to the actual form elevations on the bridge site. The project begins by establishing the elevations for both the top of the bridge and the bottom of the bridge supports that span the stream. Once this has been determined, an adequate footing structure for the bridge supports must be designed and laid out.

The footings themselves must be engineered to have the proper mass and structural support to bear the bridge along with its expected loads. Splices and joints in the base plates were offset from connections in the panels, which made the entire assembly stronger. Before pouring concrete into the bridge footings , the Ford crew installed a grid of rebar that would tie the bridge footings together with the main beam supports. Ford enlisted the help of an excavator equipped with a backhoe to maneuver the I-beams into position.

Jon Ford purchased a pair of steel I-beams rated to carry the load of the bridge from a local steel company.

With the bridge footings completed and the I-beams in position, the bridge was ready to have the header forms built around the ends of the I-beams. Next, they built the header forms around the ends of the I-beams. They were able to use the same form panels for this knee-wall portion of the abutment by positioning the panels at the desired elevation, which was flush with what would be the surface of the bridge deck.

Although Mike owns a plasma cutter, he chose to use a cutting torch for most of the cuts on this project. What the cutting torch lacks in precision, it makes up in speed and mobility. Since it needs only the tanks to operate, Mike had freedom to move around on the job site and cut the steel components in all types of weather. The Fords ordered a concrete pump to pour the bridge footings and then later the bridge headers.

They could have done the job with standard concrete truck chutes on the road side of the bridge, but they definitely needed the concrete pump to move the material to the footings on the other side of the creek. Mike and Jon predrilled the I-beam flanges for the bolts that would fasten the wood stringers to the steel beams. To mark the hole locations on the stringers, Mike installed the bolts upside down in the flanges, positioned the stringer beams and then gave them a good hit or two with a sledge hammer which caused the bolt to leave an indentation where he then drilled the bolt holes.

Mike used a heavy-duty drill with side handle and hole saw followed by a chisel to cut pockets deep enough to receive the washers and carriage-bolt heads for the stringer beams, which were attached to the top of the I-beams.

He ran the bolts down through the stringer beam and through the top flanges of the I-beams. He then used an electric impact driver to torque the nuts onto the stringer bolts. While torquing down the nuts, Mike used his Speed Square as a straight edge to make sure the bolt heads were flush with the top of the stringers.

The stringers functioned as the transition between the steel support beams and the wood bridge deck. The subsequent components were attached using wood-to-wood fasteners, including lag bolts and deck screws. Mike positioned the first five deck boards, which were the longer ones, and attached them to the beam stringers. Five of the deck boards were 4 feet longer than the other twenty deck boards. The longer deck boards were designed to cantilever beyond the primary deck and serve as support for a planned railing system along the bridge.

Mike positioned these deck boards first and spaced them evenly before attaching them to the stringers with lag bolts. He predrilled each of the bridge deck boards to keep the lag bolts from binding up in the deck boards, which allowed them to tighten against the stringer boards.

He then used an impact driver to drive the lag bolts through the bridge deck boards into the stringers. Mike stretched a string line from one side of the bridge to the other and used a sledge hammer to line up the bridge deck boards on the downstream side of the bridge. He used his circular saw to cut a series of wood wedges to space and to hold the deck boards in position while he lagged them to the stringers. The curbs along each side of the bridge required a splice that Mike cut using a circular saw and a chisel.

He used the wood wedges to evenly space the bridge deck boards and hold them in place while he drove the lag bolts through Woodworking Shop Design Plans Group the bridge deck boards into the beam stringer boards. The first vehicle on the bridge was a fully-loaded dump truck. The nearly-completed bridge is almost ready for backfill.

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