20.08.2020  Author: admin   Cool Things To Make Out Of Wood
Classic New England Design with square pickets and cross brace design for maximum strength. Narrow spacings are better over irregular ground and in contour fences. Italy plqns into another lockdown as Covid cases increase. Why pddf legends travel to this remote island. The Maine Board Gate can be built as single gates or double gates. Cable wire fences are expensive, thus they are mostly used for confinement areas wood fence plans pdf 01 as holding pens, feed lots or corrals.

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Send feedback. Valued Partner. Knock-down Workbench Must-have Band saw blades. Puzzle Boxes. Kitchen Cart. Do-It-Yourself Simple Woodworking Plans Pdf Viewer Workbench. Finger Joint Jig Mortising Machine. Classic Flag Case. It is recommended that one or more of the strands be electrified in order to prevent animals from scratching on the battens and thus moving them out of position.

If this happens, it could result in long unsupported lengths of wires, allowing animals to get through the fence. If properly designed and constructed, high-tensile smooth wire fencing has many advantages. It is easier to handle, safer for livestock, easily adapted to specific needs, has longer life, requires little maintenance, causes minimum damage to livestock hides, has a neat appearance and gives better livestock restraint and predator control when electrified.

Electric fences can be built for temporary or permanent use. In addition, a strand of electrified wire added to other types of fence usually improves their effectiveness tremendously. The temporary or movable fence is usually made with one or two strands of smooth wire or a rope or tape with small electric wires woven into it.

Tape or rope is more flexible than smooth wire and much easier to handle and move from one location to another. It is also more visible, an important factor when a fence is to be moved periodically to new locations where livestock are not used to seeing it. An electric fence controller is used to energize the wires. The moist earth is used to allow the current to return to the controller. Alternatively, one strand of wire can be grounded, so that the circuit can be completed even when the earth is very dry and thus a poor conductor.

Corners and end posts in temporary electric fences require less bracing than permanent fencing. Line posts may be small with wide spacing since the fence will generally be used for a short period of time.

Permanent electric fences may also be built. These fences have from two to eight smooth wires placed on stronger posts. Instead of using the earth for a return path, many electric fences use alternate wires as the hot wire and the grounded return to the charger. This arrangement enables a completed circuit when an animal touches any two adjacent wires and improves the performance of the fence tremendously in drought conditions.

Cost of permanent electric fence is much less than that of comparable barbed or woven wire fences. Some of the advantages of electric fencing are low initial cost, low operating cost, and portability. They can be used to protect or extend the use of old permanent fences and they can be used to protect livestock or poultry from many predators. There are a few disadvantages, however.

A home-built unit can be highly dangerous. Only approved fence chargers should be used. Livestock will require training when first using electric fences.

The electric fence charger must be operated full time, especially with cattle and sheep. Also, if no return ground wires are used, electric fences may not be effective in dry weather. This is especially true if the controller is not well grounded.

Another potential problem is that the charged wire may short-circuit and become ineffective if heavy vegetation is allowed to contact the wires. It is imperative that electric fences be inspected and that vegetation be controlled in order to minimize short circuiting.

For this reason, an electric fence may not be a good choice near wooded or swampy areas with heavy vegetative growth.

As previously stated, the type of fence needed depends on livestock, border crops, predators and other factors including cost. Table 1 shows some general comparisons for use when selecting a fence.

For example, fence with an index figure 25 costs about twice as much per foot as a fence with an index figure of Wire is covered with zinc, Wood Fence Plans Pdf Word commonly called galvanizing, to protect it from rusting. The length of time before wire begins to rust depends on the weather but also on the thickness of the zinc coating. More zinc means more years of service before rusting starts.

Fence manufacturers and the American Society for Testing Materials have established "classes" of zinc coatings for fence wire. Class 1 has the lightest coating of zinc and Class 3 has the heaviest two to three times as much, depending on the wire size.

The expected life of a fence depends on many factors, but Class 3 galvanizing can easily add 5 to 10 years of life to fence wire in a humid climate like Georgia's.

Because of competition, many suppliers of fencing materials only stock Class 1 fencing or a limited number of products in Class 3. Commonly, a light gauge Class 3 barbed wire is stocked along with a heavier gauge Class 1 barbed wire since both of these products sell for about the same price.

Other products with Class 3 galvanizing may have to be special ordered, but it is usually worth the extra cost and effort, especially in the humid southeastern climate.

If consumers demand a higher quality product, dealers will certainly supply that need. Selecting the appropriate staple is just as important to the overall strength and longevity of the fence as selecting the right wire.

Staple pull-out is a common fencing problem when using softwood posts. To avoid this problem, use 1. If using hardwood posts, shorter staples can be used because they cannot be pulled out of hardwood as easily.

Wooden posts are plentiful in Georgia. Some major advantages of wood posts are strength and resistance to bending, misalignment and withdrawal. Permanent fences will require decay resistant fence posts. The most common wooden posts are pine pressure treated with CCA chromated copper arsenate. These posts have a greenish color, and they last longer and are harder than older treatments such as creosote and Penta penta-chlorophenol. This quality of hardness tends to help prevent staples from being pulled out.

Some native, untreated trees are still used to a limited extent for fence posts. Table 2 shows the life expectancy of different tree varieties when used as fence posts. Wood posts from 5. The larger the top diameter, the stronger the post. Line posts can be as small as 2.

Corner and gate posts should have a top diameter of at least 8 inches. Brace posts should be 5 inches or more in diameter. Be careful when buying wooden posts that the posts are properly treated for contact with the soil.

Most treated lumber including 4-by-4s often used as posts bought in builder's supply stores is treated at 0. This level of treatment will not protect against termites. Sawn lumber should be treated at 0.

Fence posts can be treated at 0. Many people are tempted to use "landscape timbers" for fence posts because they are extremely cheap at times due to over supply. These timbers are a byproduct of the plywood industry. They are what is left after the veneer has been peeled off of a large log.

The danger in using these for fence posts is that many times they are not treated for ground contact since they are not designed to support a load and sometimes are not labeled, so it is unclear what, if any, treatment has been applied.

Steel posts have four major advantages. They cost less, weigh less, can be driven into the ground rather easily, and are fireproof. They also help ground the fence against lightning when the soil is moist. Steel posts vary from 5 to 8 feet long. A wide variety of steel posts are available with widely varying prices and quality, so be careful when comparison shopping to make sure you are comparing equal quality posts.

Steel posts do not have as much strength against bending as wood posts. Wooden line posts can be placed every 50 to 75 feet to help keep steel posts from bending and improve fence stability. Various kinds of posts are available for electric fence line posts as the requirements for strength are much less than for nonelectric fences.

Posts are available in wood, plastic, steel, and fiberglass. Wood and steel posts require insulators to prevent short-circuiting the fence through the posts. Where available, high-density fiberglass posts commonly known as sucker rod make excellent electric fence posts. These posts are byproducts of the oil industry and are not always available.

They are usually grey in color, are very strong and durable, and are nonconducting, so insulators are not required. All posts must be long enough for the fence height and depth of setting. Add together the height of the top wire above the ground, the depth of the post in the ground, and 6 extra inches to get the desired length.

Most people will agree that touching an electric fence is a very unpleasant experience. The experience for animals is no different. When animals come in contact with an electric fence, the shock they receive affects their nervous systems. The severity of the shock depends on the voltage and amperage, as well as the duration of the shock and the sensitivity of the animal.

It takes at least volts to effectively control short-haired breeds of cattle, pigs, and horses and around volts for long-haired cattle, sheep, and goats. The controller, sometimes called the charger or energizer, that delivers this shock is the heart of any electric fence and should be selected carefully. The thing that makes controllers safe yet effective is the short duration of the charge.

The charge is powerful, yet does not last long enough to damage the heart or to cause electrical burns. Modern low-impedance controllers have the capacity to power long distances of multi-wire fences and are not affected as much as earlier controllers by some contact with grass or other vegetation.

Controllers are available in battery powered models as well as volt AC models. When volt power is available, the volt models have the obvious advantage since batteries do not have to be purchased or recharged. If commercial power is not available near the fence to be energized, battery-powered units are available to fill this need. These units operate on 12, 24, or 36 volts one, two, or three volt batteries in series.

The batteries must be recharged every 2 to 6 weeks depending on the system and amount of use. Solar collectors are also available to recharge the batteries daily. Deep cycle, marine and RV type batteries are best suited for battery-operated controllers.

Batteries designed for use in automobiles will not last as long as deep-cycle batteries. It is important to match the capacity of the controller to the fence you want to charge. Most manufacturers indicate the strength of the unit by the number of miles it will power.

A good rule of thumb for sizing controllers is to determine the number of miles of electrified wire in the fence and add 25 percent to offset any power drain caused by vegetation touching the fence. Like most construction and maintenance jobs around the farm, fence construction requires proper techniques and common-sense judgment.

Every fencing job presents slightly different problems. A few basic principles are good starting points for every fencing job. Here are some to consider. Where a permanent fence is installed on a property line, make sure of the exact location of property lines. A mistake here can be very costly. Once this is done and any trees and brush are removed, you are ready to establish the fence line. On level ground, an end post can be installed at each end of the run and a string or a single strand of wire stretched between the two posts to establish the line.

On rolling ground where hills are too high to sight from one end-post to the next, surveying equipment can be used if available to establish the location of intermediate points on the line.

Alternatively, intermediate sighting stakes can be driven at the tops of hills. Two of these temporary stakes should be driven about 8 to 10 feet apart at the approximate position where the line will cross the crest of the hill. If both posts appear to be lined up when sighted from each end post, they represent a true midpoint of the line.

If not, they can be moved back and forth until they are properly aligned. When the fence must go around a curve, place small stakes every 16 feet around the smooth curve.

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