18.09.2020  Author: admin   Small Diy Wood Projects
Some examples of pamor include beras wutahudan maswood workshop jakarta 02 kacangkembang pala and ladrang cendan. Furious that his best friend was unfairly put wlod death, Hang Jebat rebelled against the royalty and took over the palace. However, even after a long battle in the palace, neither could best the other because the Kris Taming Sari evened the odds. Barthelemy St. Poly-bonded and molded in an ultra-aerodynamic form with a super-slippery drag coefficient, the jakara Speedform backpack is a sleek riding bag with a hardshell chassis and a four-way wood workshop jakarta 02, quick-release harness system. The unfinished kris then disappeared.

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Publish your work. The kris or keris [n 1] in Indonesian languages , is an Indonesian asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron pamor.

Kris have been produced in many regions of Indonesia for centuries, but nowhere—although the island of Bali comes close—is the kris so embedded in a mutually-connected whole of ritual prescriptions and acts, ceremonies, mythical backgrounds and epic poetry as in Central Java. Abroad, the kris is considered as a cultural symbol of Indonesia. A kris can be divided into three parts: blade bilah or wilah , hilt hulu , and sheath warangka.

Each part of the kris is considered a piece of art, often carved in meticulous detail and made from various materials: metal, precious or rare types of wood, or gold or ivory.

A kris's aesthetic value covers the dhapur the form and design of the blade, with around 60 variants , the pamor the pattern of metal alloy decoration on the blade, with around variants , and tangguh referring to the age and origin of a kris. Both a weapon and spiritual object, kris are often considered to have an essence or presence, considered to possess magical powers, with some blades possessing good luck and others possessing bad.

The spelling of "kris" is more frequently used in the West , but "keris" is more popular used in the dagger's native lands , [11] [12] as exemplified by the late Bambang Harsrinuksmo's popular book entitled Ensiklopedi Keris Kris Encyclopedia.

Other names including karih in Minangkabau , and sele in Buginese and Makassarese. Other alternative spellings used by European colonists include "cryse", "crise", "criss", "kriss" and "creese". In English, the plural form is often simply "kris" as well.

Kris history is generally traced through the study of carvings and bas-relief panels found in Java , Indonesia. Some of the most famous renderings of a kris appear on the bas-reliefs of Borobudur and Prambanan temple , originated from Hindu - Buddhist Medang Mataram Kingdom of Central Java.

However, Raffles ' study of the Candi Sukuh states that the kris recognized today came into existence around AD in the kingdom of Majapahit , East Java. The scene in bas relief of Sukuh Temple in Central Java , dated from 15th century Majapahit era, shows the workshop of a Javanese keris blacksmith.

The scene depicted Bhima as the blacksmith on the left forging the metal, Ganesha in the center, and Arjuna on the right operating the piston bellows to blow air into the furnace. The wall behind the blacksmith displays various items manufactured in the forge, including kris. These representations of the kris in the Candi Sukuh established the fact that by the year the kris had already gained an important place within Javanese culture.

The daggers are made entirely of steel with intricate motifs smoothly drawn. The handles are made of gold, rhino's horn or ivory carved with a depiction of human or demon; the carving works are exquisite and skillfully made. This Chinese account also reported that public execution by stabbing using this type of dagger is common.

Majapahit knows no caning for major or minor punishment. They tied the guilty men's hands in the back with rattan rope and paraded them for a few paces, and then stabbed the offender one or two times in the back on the gap between the floating ribs, which resulted in severe bleeding and instant death. Currently, the Kris of Knaud is the oldest known surviving kris in the world.

The kris bears the date of Saka which correspondends to AD in its iron blade. Scientists suspect that due to its special features the kris might be even older, but was decorated during Majapahit period to celebrate an important event. Although the people of Southeast Asia were already familiar with this type of stabbing weapon, the development of the kris most probably took place in Java, Indonesia.

From its origin in Java, kris culture spread throughout the Indonesian archipelago, as far as Singapore, Malaysia, Southern Thailand and Southern Philippines through maritime trade links. There exist claims of earlier forms predating the Majapahit kris but none are verifiable. In the past, the majority of kris had straight blades but this became less frequent over time. While it is commonly believed that kris were the primary weapons wielded by fighters in the past, they were actually carried by warriors as a secondary armament if they lost their main weapon, which was usually a spear.

For commoners however, kris were worn on a daily basis, especially when travelling because it might be needed for self-defense. During times of peace, people wore kris as part of ceremonial attire. Ceremonial kris were often meticulously decorated with intricate carving in gold and precious stones. Heirloom blades were handed down through successive generations and worn during special events such as weddings and other ceremonies. Men usually wore only one kris but the famous admiral Hang Tuah is said in the Hikayat Hang Tuah to have armed himself with one short and one long kris.

Women also wore kris, though usually of a smaller size than a man's. In battle, a fighter might have carried more than one kris; some carried three kris: his own, one from his father-in-law, and one as a family heirloom.

The extra two served as parrying daggers, but if none were available the sheath would serve the same purpose. Kris were often broken in battle and required repairs. Yearly cleanings, known in Javanese tradition as jamasan , is required as part of the spirituality and mythology surrounding the weapon, often left ancient blades worn and thin.

The repair materials depended on location and it is quite usual to find a weapon with fittings from several areas. For example, a kris may have a blade from Java, a hilt from Bali and a sheath from Madura. In many parts of Indonesia and the Malacca Sultanate , the kris used to be the choice weapon for an execution known as the hukuman salang [ citation needed ]. The executioner's kris had a long, straight, slender blade.

The condemned knelt before the executioner, who placed a wad of cotton or similar material on the subject's shoulder or clavicle area.

The blade was thrust through the padding, piercing the subclavian artery and the heart. Upon withdrawal, the cotton wiped the blade clean. Death came within seconds. In the 16th century, European colonial power introduced firearms into the archipelago that contribute to the decline of kris' prominence as the weapon of choice in battle. The forging of the edged weapons went into decline from the moment that the sultans or rajas were subjugated and their realms annexed by the British or Dutch East Indies colonial state.

In number of regions, a ban was placed on carrying of cutting and stabbing weapons. In Java, the turning point was the end of the five-year-long Java War when the rebellious Prince Diponegoro was defeated and detained, and had to hand his kris over to the Dutch in This event marked the disarmament of the kris as a combat weapon among the Javanese populace.

Its ceremonial function, however, as part of traditional costumes, as sacred heirloom and as a protective personal amulet, remains. The early 20th century saw the decline of kris forging as carrying edged weapons was banned in the Dutch East Indies.

However, the kris saw continuous use and forging in the Philippines , [ citation needed ] which comprised most of the Spanish East Indies. While the majority of the natives and locals in the archipelago accepted Roman Catholicism , the Muslims of the southern regions fiercely resisted Spanish rule.

The kris provided the Muslim armies with their counterpart to the Spanish weaponry and it became an alarming concern for the Spanish armies. Kris-forgers and swordsmen were referred to as juramentados by the Spanish.

Juramentados practice a ritual of sacrifice, a form of Jihad against not only Spanish soldiers, but also against Christian Filipinos alike. Juramentados were specially-trained and chosen fighters. Candidates were known as mag-sabil or ""who endure the pangs of death". These had their parents consulted, and the Sultan would permit them to undergo the training for Parang-sabil or the "path to Heaven". During the Philippine—American War , the death of American soldiers at the hands of kris-wielding Moros and other Filipinos armed with blades led to the creation and use of the Colt M During World War II, the kris were accompanied by other Moro swords such as barongs in the insurgency movement against Japanese occupation.

In Java, the traditional art of kris-making is preserved in the Javanese culture heartland, the keraton royal court of Yogyakarta and Surakarta , and also the princedom of Mangkunegaran and Pakualaman. The Javanese kings and nobles of these courts are known to employ some kris blacksmiths empu and become the patrons of their works, although the activity of kris-making is declining.

Until the s, kris-making activities in Java had almost come to a standstill due to economic difficulties and changing socio-cultural values. However, thanks to several concerned kris experts, the tradition is being revived and kris craftsmanship has increased again.

Over the past three decades, kris have lost their prominent social and spiritual meaning in society. Although active and honoured smiths who produce high quality kris in the traditional way can still be found in some places such as Madura, Surakarta, Yogyakarta, Makassar and Palembang, their number is dramatically decreasing, and it is more difficult for them to find successors to whom they may transmit their skills.

Kris made in the Philippines are often in variants, with half-wavy half-straight blades. It has become an essential and symbolic weapon to Moro culture, [ citation needed ] much as it is associated with Javanese cultures. Physically, the kris is a form of dagger with a blade measuring between 15 and 50 centimetres long, sharp on both edges and tip, broader and asymmetric shape near the hilt, made of a combination of several kinds of metals.

The kris blade is called a wilah Workshop Woodworking Machinery Llc or bilah. Kris blades are usually narrow with a wide, asymmetrical base. The kris is famous for its wavy blade; however, the older types of kris dated from the Majapahit era have straight blades, [19] as do more than half of all kris prior to the modern era.

According to traditional Javanese kejawen , kris contain all the intrinsic elements of nature: tirta water , bayu wind , agni fire , bantolo earth, but also interpreted as metal or wood which both come from the earth , and aku lit: "I" or "me", meaning that the kris has a spirit or soul.

All these elements are present during the forging of kris. Earth is metal forged by fire being blown by pumped wind, and water to cool down the metal. Some kris have the head of a naga dragon carved near the base with the body and tail following the curves of the blade to the tip. A wavy kris is thus a naga in motion, aggressive and alive; a straight blade is one at rest, its power dormant but ready to come into action.

In former times, kris blades were said to be infused with poison during their forging, ensuring that any injury was fatal. The poison used to polish kris blade is called warangan. Different types of whetstones, acidic juice of citrus fruits and poisonous arsenic bring out the contrast between the dark black iron and the light colored silvery nickel layers which together form pamor , damascene patterns on the blade.

The distinctive pamor patterns have specific meanings and names which indicate the mythical properties they are believed to impart.

There are around 60 variants of pamor recognized today in traditional kris blades. Some examples of pamor include beras wutah , udan mas , kembang kacang , kembang pala and ladrang cendan. The kris blade forging uses iron with a small content of nickel to create this pattern. The faint pamor pattern has been found in the kris from Majapahit period, which was acquired from iron ores with small nickel content.

Most probably this iron ore was imported from the island of Sulawesi , as the pamor Luwu from Luwu region is quite well known in Sulawesi and Java.

The best material for creating pamor however, is acquired in a quite unusual way, as it is made from rare meteorite iron. Traditionally the pamor material for the kris smiths connected with the courts of Yogyakarta and Surakarta originates from an iron meteorite that fell to earth at the end of 18th century in the neighborhood of the Prambanan temple complex. The meteorite was excavated and transported to the keraton of Surakarta; from that time on the smiths of Vorstenlanden the Royal territories used small pieces of meteoric iron to produce pamor patterns in their kris, pikes, and other status weapons.

After etching the blade with acidic substances, it is the small percentage of nickel present in meteoric iron that creates the distinctive silvery patterns that faintly light up against the dark background of iron or steel that become darkened by the effect of the acids. The handle or hilt hulu is an object of art, often carved in meticulous details and made from various materials: precious rare types of wood to gold or ivory.

They were often carved to resemble various animals and Hindu deities, although this became less common with the introduction of Islam. In Bali, kris handles are made to resemble demons coated in gold and adorned with semi precious and precious stones, such as rubies. In Java, kris handles are made in various types, the most common design being the abstract stylized representation of the human form.

It allows the palm of the holding hand to add pressure to the blade while stabbing. A kris only offers minimal protection for the hand by the broad blade at the hilt. As with the hilt, a kris' sheath warangka is also an object of art.

It can be made from various materials, usually a wooden frame to hold the blade which can be coated with metals such as brass, iron, silver, or even gold, usually carved in sulur floral motifs. The upper part of the sheath formed a broad curved handle made from wood or sometimes ivory. It could be adorned with precious or semi-precious stones. The making of a kris was the specialised duty of metalworkers called empu lit.

In Java the honorary title empu refer to those ironsmiths who possess the special skill of forging the kris. According to Javanese beliefs , a kris empu should possess knowledge, technical skills and also spiritual prowess, since kris are believed to have physical and spiritual presence. In old Majapahit, a kris bladesmith was referred to as pande and all were reputed to be able to work hot iron with their bare hands.

The people of Majapahit would eventually flee to Bali where the occupation has been preserved by the Pande clan to this day, members of whom also make jewellery. A bladesmith makes the blade in layers of different iron ores and meteorite nickel.

Some blades can be made in a relatively short time, while more intricate weapons take years to complete. In high quality kris blades, the metal is folded dozens or hundreds of times and handled with the utmost precision. Empu are highly respected craftsmen with additional knowledge in literature, history, and the occult. Kris were worn at special ceremonies, with heirloom blades being handed down through successive generations. Both men and women might wear them, though those for women are smaller.

A rich spirituality and mythology developed around the weapon. Kris are used for display, as talismans with magical powers, weapons, sanctified heirloom, auxiliary equipment for court soldiers, as an accessory for ceremonial dress, an indicator of social status, a symbol of heroism, etc.

In the Barong dance of Bali there is a segment called keris dance , in which the villain Rangda magically enchants Airlangga 's soldiers to commit suicide, while another magician makes them invulnerable to sharp objects. In a trance state, the male dancers stab themselves in the chest with their own kris but remain unhurt. Keris dance is actually a dangerous dance, since it can led to the fatal accident that may caused injury or death. On February , a 16 years old boy keris dancer was stabbed to death right in his heart by his own kris in a trance, during a Rangda dance performance in Banjar Blong Gede, Pemecutan Kaja, Denpasar, Bali.

In Javanese culture the kris is revered as tosan aji Javanese for "sacred heirloom weapon" and considered a pusaka. The kris is believed to have the ability to infuse bravery upon its holder: this property is known as piyandel in Javanese which means "to add self-confidence". The pusaka kris or kris-tipped spear given by a Javanese king to nobles or his subjects, was meant to symbolize the king's confidence bestowed upon the receiver and is considered a great honor.

During the Javanese wedding ceremony, a kris is required to be adorned with chains of jasmine flower arrangement as an important part of Javanese groom's wedding costume. The addition of jasmine arrangement around the kris was meant as a symbol that a man should not easily be angry, cruel, fierce, too aggressive, tyrannical and abusive.

Kris-makers did more than forge the weapon, they carried out the old rituals which could infuse the blade with mystical powers.

For this reason, kris are considered almost alive because they may be vessels of spirits, either good or evil. Legends tell of kris that could move of their own volition and killed individuals at will. Some kris are rumored to stand upright when their real names are called by their masters. It was said that some kris helped prevent fires, death, agricultural failure, and many other problems. Likewise, they could also bring fortune, such as bountiful harvests. Many of these beliefs were derived from the possession of different kris by different people.

For example, there is a type of kris in Java that was called Beras Wutah , which was believed to grant its possessor an easy life without famine. This kris was mainly assigned to government officers who were paid, in whole or in part, with foodstuffs such as rice. There are several ways of testing whether a kris is lucky or not. A series of cuts on a leaf, based on blade width and other factors, could determine if a blade was good or bad.

Also, if the owner slept with the blade under their pillow, the spirit of the kris would communicate with the owner via dream. If the owner had a bad dream, the blade was unlucky and had to be discarded, whereas if the owner had a good dream the dagger would bring good fortune. However, just because a blade was bad for one person didn't mean it would be bad for another. Harmony between the weapon and its owner was critical. Because some kris are considered sacred and believed to possess magical powers, specific rites needed to be completed to avoid calling down evil fates which is the reason warriors often made offerings to their kris at a shrine.

There is also the belief that pointing a kris at someone means they will die soon, so silat practitioners precede their demonstrations by touching the points of the blades to the ground so as to neutralise this effect.

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