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Main article: V2X. WikiProject Technology may be able to help recruit an expert. The display area does not include spectator viewing areas or vehicle parking areas. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product. That portion of exit access travel distance measured from the most remote point of each room, area or space to that point where the occupants have separate and woodworking plans for l shaped desk device access to two exits or exit access doorways.

Lithium metal polymer battery. A storage battery that is similar to the lithium ion battery except that it has a lithium metal anode in the place of the traditional carbon or graphite anode. Nickel-cadmium Ni-Cd battery. An alkaline storage battery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the negative contains cadmium and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide.

Pre-engineered stationary storage battery system. An energy storage system consisting of batteries, a battery management system , components and modules that are produced in a factory, designed to comprise the system when assembled on the job site. Prepackaged stationary storage battery system. An energy storage system consisting of batteries, a battery management system , components and modules that is factory assembled and shipped as a complete unit for installation at the job site.

Sodium-beta storage battery. A storage battery, also referred to as a Na-beta battery or NBB, which uses a solid beta-alumina electrolyte membrane that selectively allows sodium ion transport between a positive electrode such as metal halide and a negative sodium electrode. Stationary storage battery. A group of electrochemical cells interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC power to a suitably connected electrical load, designed for service in a permanent location.

A five-sided container with the open side facing an aisle. Bin boxes are self-supporting or supported by a structure designed so that little or no horizontal or vertical space exists around the boxes. Plant- or animal-based material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geologic formations or transformed into fossils. The area including the blast site and the immediate adjacent area within the influence of flying rock, missiles and concussion.

The area in which explosive materials are being or have been loaded and which includes all holes loaded or to be loaded for the same blast and a distance of 50 feet 15 mm in all directions.

A person qualified in accordance with Section A material or mixture consisting of fuel and oxidizer , intended for blasting provided that the finished product, as mixed for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means of a No.

Blasting agents are labeled and placarded as Class 1. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element see " Grandstand ". A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit.

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point , for the purposes of this classification, the percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid.

An outdoor fire utilized for ceremonial purposes. For revolving doors, a process whereby wings or door panels can be pushed open manually for means of egress travel. The heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 pound 0. Any structure utilized or intended for supporting or sheltering any occupancy. See " Area, building. See " Height, building. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the Building Code of New York State , or a duly authorized representative.

A building permit , construction permit , demolition permit or permit that authorizes the performance of work. An assembly of equipment, such as oxygen storage containers , pressure regulators, safety devices, vaporizers, manifolds and interconnecting piping, that has a storage capacity of more than 20, cubic feet m 3 of oxygen at normal temperature and pressure NTP including unconnected reserves on hand at the site.

The bulk oxygen system terminates at the point where oxygen at service pressure first enters the supply line. The oxygen containers can be stationary or movable, and the oxygen can be stored as a gas or liquid. That portion of a property where flammable or combustible liquids are received by tank vessel , pipelines, tank car or tank vehicle and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel , pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle , portable tank or container.

The loading or unloading of flammable or combustible liquids from or between tank vehicles , tank cars or storage tanks. Constructed so as to resist penetration of a bullet of grain M2 ball ammunition having a nominal muzzle velocity of 2, feet per second fps mps when fired from a caliber rifle at a distance of feet 30 mm , measured perpendicular to the target. A structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration, and may be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer end.

A stationary, rechargeable energy storage system consisting of capacitors, chargers, controls and associated electrical equipment designed to provide electrical power to a building or facility. A system where carbon dioxide gas is intentionally introduced into an indoor environment, typically for the purpose of stimulating plant Woodworking Plans For A Desk Key growth. A system supplying carbon dioxide CO 2 from a pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles.

The system includes a manual- or automatic -actuating mechanism. A single- or multiple-station alarm intended to detect carbon monoxide gas and alert occupants by a distinct audible signal. It incorporates a sensor, control components and an alarm notification appliance in a single unit. A device with an integral sensor to detect carbon monoxide gas and transmit an alarm signal to a connected alarm control unit.

In Group I-2 occupancies, a group of treatment rooms, care recipient sleeping rooms and the support rooms or spaces and circulation space within the suite where staff are in attendance for supervision of all care recipients within the suite, and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of Section A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product.

The maximum concentration of an air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed. A document issued by the authority having jurisdiction certifying that the building complies with the approved construction documents that have been submitted to and approved by the authority having jurisdiction , indicating it to be in a condition suitable for occupancy.

A change in the use of a building or a portion of a building that results in any of the following:. An element, chemical compound or mixture of elements or compounds or both.

A ventilated enclosure designed to contain and exhaust fumes, gases, vapors, mists and particulate matter generated within the hood. The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify a chemical for the purpose of conducting an evaluation. A primarily vertical structure containing one or more flues for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the outdoor atmosphere.

Factory-built chimney. A listed and labeled chimney composed of factory-made components, assembled in the field in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and the conditions of the listing. Masonry chimney.

A field-constructed chimney composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones, or concrete. Metal chimney. A field-constructed chimney of metal. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on a less-than- hour basis to persons who are not rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided.

A container sealed by means of a lid or other device such that liquid , vapor or dusts will not escape from it under ordinary conditions of use or handling. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and all uses of compressed gases.

Examples of closed systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed through a piping system into a closed vessel , system or piece of equipment. The program under which an authority having jurisdiction administers and enforces this code, as such program is currently in effect and as such program may hereafter be amended from time to time. A pile of unfinished cut logs. Finely divided solid material which is microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark or other source of ignition.

Combustible dust will pass through a U. Readily ignitable and free-burning materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton , excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does not include densely packed baled cotton. An instrument that samples the local atmosphere and indicates the presence of ignitable vapors or gases within the flammable or explosive range expressed as a volume percent in air.

Combustible liquids shall be subdivided as follows:. Class II. Class IIIA. Class IIIB. The category of combustible liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids. Appliances used in a commercial food service establishment for heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed through a local exhaust ventilation system.

Such appliances include deep fat fryers, upright broilers, griddles, broilers, steam-jacketed kettles, hot-top ranges, under-fired broilers charbroilers , ovens, barbecues, rotisseries, and similar appliances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service establishment shall include any building or a portion thereof used for the preparation and serving of food. A motor vehicle used to transport passengers or property where the motor vehicle:.

A combination of products, packing materials and containers. That portion of exit access travel distance measured from the most remote point of each room, area or space to that point where the occupants have separate and distinct access to two exits or exit access doorways. Interior or exterior circulation paths, rooms, spaces or elements that are not for public use and are made available for the shared use of two or more people.

A material, or mixture of materials that:. The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows:. An assembly of equipment designed to contain, distribute or transport compressed gases.

It can consist of a compressed gas container or containers , reactors and appurtenances, including pumps, compressors and connecting piping and tubing. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or other emergency services.

The written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a permit.

A vessel of 60 gallons L or less in capacity used for transporting or storing hazardous materials. Pipes, piping systems , engines and engine fuel tanks are not considered to be containers.

A gas-tight recovery system comprised of equipment or devices which can be placed over a leak in a compressed gas container , thereby stopping or controlling the escape of gas from the leaking container.

A gas-tight recovery vessel designed so that a leaking compressed gas container can be placed within its confines thereby encapsulating the leaking container. Spaces within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled.

See also the definition of " Outdoor control area. An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel. See " Open-ended corridor. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described in DOTn 49 CFR This term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.

Baled cotton. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and secured with industry-accepted materials, usually consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel , synthetic or wire bands, or wire; also includes linters lint removed from the cottonseed and motes residual materials from the ginning process.

Baled cotton, densely packed. Seed cotton. Perishable raw agricultural commodity consisting of cotton fiber lint attached to the seed of the cotton plant, which requires ginning to become a commercial product.

An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities , passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls.

Anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term " covered mall building " shall include open mall buildings as defined below.

A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term " mall " shall include open malls as defined below. Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities , offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls.

Anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building. A circuit that requires continuous operation to ensure safety of the structure and occupants. A cryogenic vessel of any size used for the transportation, handling or storage of cryogenic fluids.

A pressure vessel , low-pressure tank or atmospheric tank designed to contain a cryogenic fluid on which venting, insulation, refrigeration or a combination of these is used in order to maintain the operating pressure within the design pressure and the contents in a liquid phase. Assistance with day-to-day living tasks; such as assistance with cooking, taking medication, bathing, using toilet facilities and other tasks of daily living.

A pressure vessel designed for pressures higher than 40 psia It does not include a portable tank , multiunit tank car tank , cargo tank or tank car. See " Fire damper " and " Smoke damper.

A portable magazine designed to hold explosive materials and constructed in accordance with the requirements for a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect including, but not limited to, curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and all other materials utilized for decorative effect including, but not limited to, bulletin boards, artwork, posters, photographs, paintings, batting, cloth, cotton , hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items, foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics.

Decorative materials do not include wall coverings, ceiling coverings, floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at a rate less than the velocity of sound.

A deflagration can have an explosive effect. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.

The maximum gauge pressure that a pressure vessel , device, component or system is designed to withstand safely under the temperature and conditions of use expected. The act of removing a solvent from a material. A separate single- story building, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from all structures.

A process for rapidly removing excess wet coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by passing it through an electrostatic field. A fire detector that senses heat, either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both.

A flexible cord containing a center core of high explosive used to initiate other explosives. An exothermic reaction characterized by the presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and maintains the reaction.

The reaction zone progresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression.

Detonations have an explosive effect. A device containing any initiating or primary explosive that is used for initiating detonation.

A detonator shall not contain more than The term includes, but is not limited to, electric blasting caps of instantaneous and delay types, blasting caps for use with safety fuses, detonating cord delay connectors, and noninstantaneous and delay blasting caps which use detonating cord , shock tube or any other replacement for electric leg wires. All types of detonators in strengths through No. For strengths higher than No.

Facilities that provide treatment for substance abuse serving care recipients who are incapable of self-preservation or who are harmful to themselves or others. A tank , vat or container of flammable or combustible liquid in which articles or materials are immersed for the purpose of coating, finishing, treating and similar processes.

The immediate area surrounding the fireworks mortars used for an outdoor fireworks display. The pouring or transferring of any material from a container , tank or similar vessel , whereby vapors, dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere. A dispensing device that consists of one or more individual units intended for installation in conjunction with each other, mounted above a dispensing area typically within the motor fuel- dispensing facility canopy structure, and characterized by the use of an overhead hose reel.

The immediate area where a fireworks display is conducted. The display area includes the discharge site , the fallout area and the required separation distance from the mortars to spectator viewing areas. The display area does not include spectator viewing areas or vehicle parking areas.

See " Balanced door. See " Dutch door. See " Low energy power-operated door. See " Power-assisted door. See " Power-operated door. See " Exit access doorway.

A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. A structure arranged to limit the spread of smoke and heat along the underside of the ceiling or roof.

A powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbon-ate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption caking and the proper flow capabilities. The process of removing dirt, grease, paints and other stains from such items as wearing apparel, textiles, fabrics and rugs by use of nonaqueous liquids solvents.

A facility in which dry cleaning and associated operations are conducted, including the office, receiving area and storage rooms. An occupiable space within a building used for performing dry cleaning operations, the installation of solvent- handling equipment or the storage of dry cleaning solvents.

Machinery or equipment in which textiles are immersed or agitated in solvent or in which dry cleaning solvent is extracted from textiles.

A door divided horizontally so that the top can be operated independently from the bottom. A building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

A sprinkler listed for early suppression fast-response performance. A court or yard which provides access to a public way for one or more exits.

A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material that is electrically charged with a charge opposite to that of the object to be coated. Such object is transported through the container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order to be coated. A grouping of elevators in a building located adjacent or directly across from one another that respond to a common hall call button s. A system to provide indication and warning of emergency situations involving hazardous materials.

An approved location on the premises where signals from emergency equipment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. An operable window, door or other similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency.

An exercise performed to train staff and occupants and to evaluate their efficiency and effectiveness in carrying out emergency evacuation procedures. A source of automatic electric power of a required capacity and duration to operate required life safety, fire alarm , detection and ventilation systems in the event of a failure of the primary power. Emergency power systems are required for electrical loads where interruption of the primary power could result in loss of human life or serious injuries.

A valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids. A fail-safe automatic -closing valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids initiated by a control system that is activated by automatic means. A manually operated valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a building.

All or any portion of a space used only by employees and only for work. Corridors , toilet rooms, kitchenettes and break rooms are not employee work areas. An electronic system that protects energy storage systems from operating outside their safe operating parameters and disconnects electrical power to the energy storage system or places it in a safe condition if potentially hazardous temperatures or other conditions are detected.

One or more devices, assembled together, capable of storing energy in order to supply electrical energy at a future time, not to include a stand-alone volt car battery or an electric motor vehicle. A cabinet containing components of the energy storage system that is included in the UL listing for the system.

Personnel are not able to enter the enclosure, other than reaching in to access components for maintenance purposes. A systematic process that provides documented confirmation that an energy storage system functions according to the intended design criteria and complies with applicable code requirements.

A systematic process that provides documentation and procedures that allow an energy storage system to be safely de-energized, disassembled, readied for shipment or storage, and removed from the premise in accordance with applicable code requirements. An energy storage system that stores energy and produces electricity using chemical reactions.

It includes, among others, battery energy storage systems and capacitor energy storage systems. An energy storage system capable of being moved and utilized for temporary energy storage applications, and not installed as fixed or stationary electrical equipment. The system can include integral wheels for transportation or be loaded on a trailer and unloaded for charging, storage and deployment. An energy storage system installed as fixed or stationary electrical equipment in a permanent location.

An unoccupied, elevated platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, including the associated elevated walkways, stairways , alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to access the platform see Section A fail-safe system or other approved means designed to shut off flow caused by a rupture in pressurized piping systems.

A valve inserted into a compressed gas cylinder , portable tank or stationary tank that is designed to positively shut off the flow of gas in the event that its predetermined flow is exceeded. An appliance or piece of equipment which consists of a top, a back and two sides providing a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and mists.

Such enclosures include laboratory hoods , exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to retain and exhaust locally the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation , in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures. Buildings, facilities or conditions that are already in existence, constructed or officially authorized prior to the adoption of this code.

That portion of a means of egress system between the exit access and the exit discharge or public way. Exit components include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge , interior exit stairways and ramps , exit passageways , exterior exit stairways and ramps and horizontal exits.

That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an exit. A door or access point along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor , exit access stairway or ramp. A ramp within the exit access portion of the means of egress system. A stairway within the exit access portion of the means of egress system. That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.

The story at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance -rated construction and opening protectives , and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to the exit discharge. A foam or cellular plastic material having a reduced density based on the presence of numerous small cavities or cells dispersed throughout the material.

An effect produced by the sudden violent expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or structures. An explosion could result from any of the following:. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives , detonators , safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord , igniter cord and igniters.

High explosive. Explosive material , such as dynamite, which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or deflagrate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explosives include, but are not limited to, black powder, safety fuse, igniters, igniter cord, fuse lighters, fireworks and propellants , 1.

Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1. Materials that react in this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur immediately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so that two or more quantities must be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes.

The former classification system used by DOTn included the terms "high" and "low" explosives as defined herein. The following terms further define explosives under the current system applied by DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 materials.

Compatibility group letters are used in concert with the division to specify further limitations on each division noted for example, the letter G identifies the material as a pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance and similar materials. Explosives that have a mass explosion hazard.

A mass explosion is one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously. Explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard. Explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard. Explosives that pose a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected.

An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package. Very insensitive explosives. This division is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion hazard but which are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.

Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised of articles that contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.

The term " explosive " material means explosives , blasting Woodworking Plans For A Desk Table agents and detonators. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and is open to yards , courts or public ways.

A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a fire wall , and that has a slope of 60 degrees 1. Storage on racks of Class I, II, III or IV commodities that exceed 40 feet 12 mm in height and storage on racks of high-hazard commodities that exceed 30 feet mm in height. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility and related research and development areas in which there are processes using hazardous production materials.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Future Generation Computer Systems. Future Internet: The Internet of Things. Insider, Inc. Precision Agriculture Technology for Crop Farming. CRC Press. Yachting World. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved 10 July Atlantic Monthly Group.

Wijerathna Basnayaka, Chathuranga. Sino-Singapore Guangzhou Knowledge City. Retrieved 11 July Intel Newsroom. Coconuts Singapore. Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 15 May Fierce Wireless Tech. Retrieved 12 August Extreme Tech.

Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. FIT French Project. Archived from the original on 14 July Business Process Management Journal. Retrieved 31 October ECE Illinois. Packaging Digest. Retrieved 28 April Aalborg, Denmark: River Publishers. ETH Zurich. Connected World. Retrieved 18 September Computers in Human Behavior.

GDR Blog. GDR Creative Intelligence. The Journal of Machine Learning Research. Bibcode : arXivL. Digital Communications and Networks. Bibcode : arXivS. Intelligence for Embedded Systems. Springer Verlag. Packt Publishing. Internet of Things: Challenges, Advances, and Applications. Internet of Things, for Things, and by Things.

IT Pro. Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 21 April Journal of Network and Computer Applications. June Retrieved 3 June L'Internet des Objets Internet, mais en mieux PDF. Computer Science, Technology And Application. World Scientific. Sadek May Egyptian Computer Science Journal. Nanoinformatique et intelligence ambiante. London: Hermes Science. Retrieved 15 February Analytics for the Internet of Things IoT.

In Bessis, N. Monday Note. Internet of Things with Intel Galileo. The Register. Retrieved 5 June Internet of Things vendors face a communications 'mess ' ". Morgan Kaufmann. Nanocomputers and Swarm Intelligence. London: ISTE. August RFC IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration. April In Wang, Y. Google Developers Blog. Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 24 December Retrieved 3 September Retrieved 8 August Internet of Things: Legal Perspectives.

Oxford Internet Institute. Federal Trade Commission. Tech Barrista. Retrieved 9 December Paul 2 February Mobile World. Retrieved 19 October Retrieved 2 August Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge. Retrieved 1 June Environmental Research Letters. Bibcode : ERL The Council of the Internet of Things. Retrieved 6 June Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. The New York Times. British Computer Society. In Acharjya, D. Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

Freedom to Tinker. In Li, S. Securing the Internet of Things. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing. Retrieved 26 February Harvard Business Review Blog.

Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 21 July Cyber-Physical Attacks A growing invisible threat. Alex; Invernizzi, Luca 18 August Cloudflare Blog. Washington Post. Mozilla Hacks — the Web developer blog.

BBC News. IoT Security Foundation. Krishnamurthy, Srikanth; J. Colbert, Edward; McDaniel, Patrick Heraklion, Greece. University of California, Irvine. Retrieved 14 June In Rowland, C. O'Reilly Media. Retrieved 7 April Electronic Frontier Foundation. Information Age. Vitesse Media Plc. The Industrial Internet Consortium. Retrieved 21 March IoT One.

IoT ONE. Retrieved 24 March Retrieved 2 May Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Publishing. Retrieved 30 March World Economic Forum.

January Retrieved 29 January Indoor and Built Environment. Technology Innovation Management Review. The Journal of Modern Project Management. Ambient intelligence. Embedded systems. U-Boot Barebox. Lightweight browsers List of open-source computing hardware Open-source robotics.

Emerging technologies. Information and communications. Collingridge dilemma Differential technological development Disruptive innovation Ephemeralization Ethics Bioethics Cyberethics Neuroethics Robot ethics Exploratory engineering Fictional technology Proactionary principle Technological change Technological unemployment Technological convergence Technological evolution Technological paradigm Technology forecasting Accelerating change Moore's law Technological singularity Technology scouting Technology readiness level Technology roadmap Transhumanism.

Category List. Self-driving cars and enabling technologies. History of self-driving cars Intelligent transportation system Context-aware pervasive systems Mobile computing Smart, connected products Ubiquitous computing Ambient intelligence Internet of things.

Lane departure warning system Automatic parking Collision avoidance system Cruise control Adaptive cruise control Advanced driver-assistance systems Driver drowsiness detection Intelligent speed adaptation Blind spot monitor.

Vehicular ad hoc network V2V Connected car Automotive navigation system. Legislation IEEE Categories : Internet of things Ambient intelligence Emerging technologies Technology assessment Computing and society Digital technology 21st-century inventions.

Loose Side. Machine Screw. Threaded fastener similar to a small bolt but with a slotted or Phillips head like a screw, used with a nut or in a tapped hole; sometimes called a stove bolt. A mounting rod used to turn hollow cylindrical blanks on a lathe, as for pen parts. Marking Gauge. A device that uses a knife or other sharp point to transfer measured lines to a workpiece.

Technique using veneer of contrasting woods cut into pieces and arranged to form a pattern. An engineered wood product made from compressed wood fibers, sawdust, resins, and waxes and generally available in 4'x 8' sheets.

Milk Paint. Mineral Spirits. Miter Box. Miter Gauge. An accessory with an adjustable fence enabling angled cuts; has a rectangular runner on the underside that allows it to be used on any woodworking machine equipped with a miter slot. Miter Joint. Miter Slot. A shallow slot on a woodworking machine that guides a miter gauge or other device equipped with a runner sized to fit to the slot. Miter Square. Moisture Content. A length of wood into which a decorative profile has been milled, often used as transition between two walls or surfaces.

Morse Taper MT. A standard for mounting shafts used on drill presses, chuck components, and lathe centers manufactured with a slightly conical shape to facilitate quick bit changes and accurate centering. A generally rectangular cavity cut into a framing member to accept a mating tenon or a piece of hardware, such as a hinge.

A strong form of joinery in which a generally rectangular stub tenon cut on one piece of stock is inserted into a matching cavity mortise cut into another and secured with glue or pegs. A machine similar to a drill press but with a hollow, square chisel surrounding the drill bit, used to cut square or rectangular cavities, known as mortises, in wood. A thin divider strip used to separate panes of glass or mirror within a multiple arrangement; sometimes called a muntin. Nail Set. A metal tool similar to a punch used to recess the heads of finishing nails below the surface.

Natural-Edge Turning. A woodturning, usually a bowl or goblet, which features remnants of bark along the rim. The upright post at the top or bottom of a staircase into which the banister assembly is mounted. Nondrying Oil. When used on wood, any oil-based finish that penetrates the surface but does not harden when exposed to air; mineral oil and most vegetable oils are nondrying. An S-shaped decorative molding or edge profile consisting of a concave arc flowing into a convex arc; sometimes called a Roman ogee.

One-By 1-by. A one-of-a-kind project, usually a piece of furniture made to a customer's specifications. Open Coat. Open Time. The amount of time that glue can be exposed to the air and still be workable; also called working life or pot life. Any wood with wide, conspicuous growth ring, large pores, and a grainy surface texture, such as oak, ash, and walnut; also called coarse-grained.

An eccentric, somewhat circular motion used by some powered cutting and sanding tools. Oriented Strand Board. Type of building panel similar to plywood, made up of small, flat wood chips glued together to form large sheets; often abbreviated OSB. Oscillating Drum Sander.

A powered surfacing tool in which an abrasive cylinder simultaneously rotates and moves up and down for sanding complex shapes. Outboard Turning. To pivot a lathe's headstock away from the lathe bed, increasing the machine's capacity for turning large bowls. Overlay Door. Paint Thinner. Painter's Tape. Adhesive paper tape usually blue used to mask areas adjacent to surfaces being painted and then be easily removed without leaving any residue. Palm Sander. A flat rectangle of wood often constructed by gluing several boards together side by side.

Panel Saw. A woodworking machine used for cutting large sheets of material to a more manageable size. A building or substrate material made by compressing tiny wood chips with adhesive and forming them into sheets.

Parting Tool. A sheet of hardboard perforated with evenly spaced holes, most often used as a mounting surface for specialized brackets and hangers. Pen Lathe. A very small lathe, usually weighing less than 12 pounds, used for small turnings such as pens and jewelry. The specification designating sizes of nails; also called pennyweight. Abbreviated with the letter d; for example, 10d finish nails. A type of screw invented by Henry Phillips in the s, with a cross- shaped indentation in the head; also the cross-shaped screwdriver head used to turn it.

Piano Hinge. A long, narrow hinge with attachment points at short-spaced intervals and a connecting pin running its entire length. Pigtail Scratches. The curlicue scratches sometimes caused by handheld electric sanders; sometimes called swirling. A flat, pillar-shaped detail added to the upper portion of furniture for decoration. Pilot Bearing.

Pin Nailer. A powered tool that drives tiny, sharp, nearly invisible pins into small moldings and other thin furniture components to provide mechanical fastening to supplement gluing. Pin Router. A power tool with a router bit protruding from a horizontal surface similar to a router table but with an overhead locating pin that follows a pattern to guide the material over the bit in order to create multiple identical pieces. Pipe Clamp. A clamp made by attaching a fixed jaw on one end of a length of steel pipe and an adjustable jaw at the other end.

Pivot Block. A guide used for resawing that allows the workpiece to be pivoted to follow a cut line; sometimes called a point fence. Pivot Hinge.

Plain Sawn. The most common type of cut lumber; shows pronounced growth rings running almost parallel to the board's face. A flat plate or caul often part of an assembly used to adhere veneer to a substrate. A round piece of wood glued in place over a countersunk screw to hide the screw head. Plunge Router. Pocket Hole. An elliptical slot bored at an angle in the face of a board, through which a screw is driven to secure that board Woodworking Plans For A Desk Up to an adjacent piece of wood; sometimes called screw pocket.

A type of flexible plastic used in sheeting, expanding foam insulation, and glues; often called simply poly.

Polyvinyl Acetate. Positive Stop. Pot Life. The amount of time that glue can be exposed to the air and still be workable; also called working life or open time. Primary Wood. The main wood used in project construction that is generally seen, such as tops, sides, doors, and drawer fronts. Push Stick. An accessory used to push a workpiece through a cutting edge, keeping hands a safe distance away.

Queen Anne. English furniture design based on the Baroque style developed during the reign of Queen Anne, — A shelflike joint sized to match the workpiece that fits into it; European form is "rebate".

Raised Grain. A lifting of grain on the surface of a board usually caused by the application of water or a water-based finish. Raised Panel. A construction in which the thinned edges of a wooden panel are inserted into a channel formed on the inside edges of the stiles and rails; the panel used in such construction. The flat-topped tooth in an alternate top bevel ATB circular saw blade that cleans out the material at the bottom of the cut to flatten it.

Random Orbit. The eccentric, swirling motion of a tool such as a disk sander designed to minimize the visible pattern of sanding scratches. Ray Flecking. Reaction Wood. A condition of lumber in which the tree was subject to mechanical stress during its growth; see "compression wood" and "tension wood". Relief Carving. Relief Cut. A kerf cut on the hidden side of a board used to relieve internal stress on the visible side to prevent splitting or cracking. Rift Sawn. Right Side. The side of a board that will be visible in the finished piece; the smooth side of a sheet of veneer.

Rip Blade. Riving Knife. A thin piece of metal behind a saw blade that prevents wood from touching the rear of the blade and possibly causing a kickback; unlike a splitter, which is fixed, a riving knife moves to always keep the same orientation with the saw blade. Robertson Head. Rotary Cut. Rotary Tool. Small handheld electric tool that spins a variety of cutting, grinding, sanding, polishing, and other specialty tips; often used for hobby crafts.

Rough Sawn. Rough Turn. Roughing Gouge. Rubbing Compound. Mild abrasive used to remove oxidization from the topmost layers of finish, thereby restoring its shine.

Rubbing Out a Finish. The degree to which a rotating tool wobbles as it spins; an undesirable characteristic. Sacrificial Fence. A temporary fence attached to a main fence that is often damaged during the cutting process, then discarded.

Sanding Drum. A person who operates a saw; commonly used to describe someone who works in a sawmill. Scarf Joint. Scuff Sand. Light sanding given to wood finishes between multiple coats to improve adhesion of successive coats.

Sealer Coat. Secondary Bevel. An additional sharpening step performed on the cutting edge of a blade, chisel, or plane iron that creates a bevel a few degrees off from the primary bevel. Secondary Wood. Wood used in project construction that is generally not seen, such as drawer boxes and interior cabinet shelves.

Cutter knives in a woodworking machine that are notched or otherwise indexed so that they automatically seat in the correct position. Self-Sealing Finishes. Set Screw. A small screw commonly used to adjust a machine component, such as the level of the throat plate on a table saw, or the guide blocks on a band saw.

A heavy-duty woodworking machine similar to a router designed to mill profiles on workpiece edges. Shaving Horse. A combination bench and seat for carving; a movable end piece is held with the foot to clamp a workpiece in place, freeing both hands. Sheet Goods. Plywood, MDF, or other materials usually sold in sheets, with 4' x 8' being the most common size. Sheet-Metal Screw. A sharp-pointed, self-tapping threaded fastener most often used to attach pieces of thin metal to each other or some other material.

Shooting Board. On a saw blade, a raised portion of metal behind each tooth that adds strength to the blade and helps prevent kickback. On a wooden workpiece, the area that surrounds or abuts a projection; for example, the end of a board from which a tenon projects.

Silicon Carbide. A very hard, uniform, fast- cutting abrasive material used in high- quality sandpapers and on the cutting edges of tools. To run a rough-sawn board through a planer just enough to reveal the wood's characteristics. Skip Tooth. Device to guide a workpiece squarely and safely through the cutting edge of a woodworking machine, usually a table saw. Sliding Bevel.

An adjustable square used to measure or mark angles; sometimes called a bevel gauge. Sliding Dovetail. A form of joinery similar to a dado but with angled rather than vertical sides and a mating piece with grooves cut along its width at a corresponding angle.

Sliding Table. On a table saw, a movable portion of the table used to feed a workpiece squarely through the blade.

Slip Match. A veneer pattern created by aligning successive pieces side by side vertically but offsetting them horizontally. Slip Stone. A generally handheld stone used to hone the inside curve of a gouge's cutting edge. Slot Mortiser. Soft Start. An electronic control for an electric motor that eases the motor up to full speed when turned on. Solid Surface. Soss Hinge. A fully concealed knife-style hinge in which one side is mortised into the door and the other side is mortised into the door frame.

Spade Bit. Drill bit with a wide, spade- shaped cutting edge used to drill large-diameter holes. Specific Gravity. Spindle Sander. A thin strip of wood set into opposing slots of wood being joined; when used on the outside corner of a miter joint, it is called a miter key.

Split Point. A thin piece of metal or plastic behind a saw blade that prevents wood from touching the rear of the blade and possibly causing a kickback. An area on wood surface where stain has been absorbed unevenly; also called blotching. Tack Cloth. A sticky cloth used to remove dust from freshly sanded wood before staining or finishing.

Tack Time. The apparatus on the unpowered side of a lathe that holds a workpiece for spindle turning. Bolt with a T-shaped head, designed to slide into a slot before being tightened; often used for temporary tightening or attachment of jigs, fixtures, and fences.

Splintering caused on the underside or end of a workpiece when a saw blade, router bit, or other cutter exits the wood. Totally enclosed fan-cooled; describes a sealed motor with an internal impeller designed to lower the operating temperature.

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