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It has a wonderful scent that I can only describe as rich, slightly sweet, and crisp. Low Attack — The story of two Mosquito squadrons, — Quite truthfully I doubt any of them are that different from each other. Without armament, the crew could be reduced to a pilot balsa wood stores near me usa navigator. Our cheap essay writing service employs only writers who have outstanding writing skills. Rapala X-Rap Shad Crankbaits.

On 20 September, in another letter to Wilfrid Freeman, de Havilland wrote " The DH. It was thought the Germans would produce fighters that were faster than had been expected. On 12 November, at a meeting considering fast-bomber ideas put forward by de Havilland, Blackburn , and Bristol , Air Marshal Freeman directed de Havilland to produce a fast aircraft, powered initially by Merlin engines, with options of using progressively more powerful engines, including the Rolls-Royce Griffon and the Napier Sabre.

The AOC-in-C would not accept an unarmed bomber, but insisted on its suitability for reconnaissance missions with F8 or F24 cameras. De Havilland claimed the DH. Freeman supported it for RAF service, ordering a single prototype for an unarmed bomber to specification B. Maximum service ceiling was to be 32, ft 9, m. After debate, that this prototype, given the military serial number W , was decided to carry airborne interception AI Mk IV equipment as a day and night fighter.

With design of the DH. Initially, the concept was for the crew to be enclosed in the fuselage behind a transparent nose similar to the Bristol Blenheim or Heinkel He H , but this was quickly altered to a more solid nose with a conventional canopy. Work was cancelled again after the Battle of Dunkirk , when Lord Beaverbrook , as Minister of Aircraft Production , decided no production capacity remained for aircraft like the DH.

Beaverbrook told Air Vice-Marshal Freeman that work on the project should stop, but he did not issue a specific instruction, and Freeman ignored the request. Apparently, the project shut down when the design team were denied materials for the prototype. The Mosquito was only reinstated as a priority in July , after de Havilland's general manager, L. Murray, promised Lord Beaverbrook 50 Mosquitos by December This was only after Beaverbrook was satisfied that Mosquito production would not hinder de Havilland's primary work of producing Tiger Moth and Airspeed Oxford trainers, repairing Hurricanes , and manufacturing Merlin engines under licence.

As it transpired, only 20 aircraft were built in , but the other 30 were delivered by mid-March In the aftermath of the Battle of Britain, the original order was changed to 20 bomber variants and 30 fighters. Whether the fighter version should have dual or single controls, or should carry a turret, was still uncertain, so three prototypes were built: W , W , and W The second and third, both turret armed, were later disarmed, to become the prototypes for the T. III trainer.

The nose sections also had to be changed from a design with a clear perspex bomb-aimer's position, to one with a solid nose housing four.

On 3 November , the prototype aircraft, painted in "prototype yellow" and still coded E , was dismantled, transported by road to Hatfield and placed in a small, blast-proof assembly building. Two Merlin 21 two-speed, single-stage supercharged engines were installed, driving three-bladed de Havilland Hydromatic constant-speed controllable-pitch propellers.

Engine runs were made on 19 November. On 25 November, the aircraft made its first flight, piloted by de Havilland Jr. Walker, the chief engine installation designer. For this maiden flight, E , weighing 14, lb 6, kg , took off from the grass airstrip at the Hatfield site. The takeoff was reported as "straightforward and easy" and the undercarriage was not retracted until a considerable altitude was attained.

The left wing of E also had a tendency to drag to port slightly, so a rigging adjustment, i. The pilot noticed this most in the control column, with handling becoming more difficult. During testing on 10 December, wool tufts were attached to suspect areas to investigate the direction of airflow.

The conclusion was that the airflow separating from the rear section of the inner engine nacelles was disturbed, leading to a localised stall and the disturbed airflow was striking the tailplane, causing buffeting.

To smooth the air flow and deflect it from forcefully striking the tailplane, nonretractable slots fitted to the inner engine nacelles and to the leading edge of the tailplane were tested. In February , buffeting was eliminated by incorporating triangular fillets on the trailing edge of the wings and lengthening the nacelles, the trailing edge of which curved up to fair into the fillet some 10 in mm behind the wing's trailing edge; this meant the flaps had to be divided into inboard and outboard sections.

He was greatly impressed by the "lightness of the controls and generally pleasant handling characteristics". Cunningham concluded that when the type was fitted with AI equipment, it might replace the Bristol Beaufighter night fighter.

During its trials on 16 January , W outpaced a Spitfire at 6, ft 1, m. Repairs were made by early March, using part of the fuselage of the photo-reconnaissance prototype W W continued to be used for various test programmes, as the experimental "workhorse" for the Mosquito family.

The first flight with the new engines was on 20 June In September , W was returned to the Salisbury Hall hangar where it was built, restored to its original configuration, and became one of the primary exhibits of the de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre.

W , which was designed from the outset to be the prototype for the photo-reconnaissance versions of the Mosquito, was slated to make its first flight in early However, the fuselage fracture in W meant that W's fuselage was used as a replacement; W was then rebuilt using a production standard fuselage and first flew on 10 June This prototype continued to use the short engine nacelles, single-piece trailing-edge flaps, and the 19 ft 5.

Construction of the fighter prototype, W , was also carried out at the secret Salisbury Hall facility. It was powered by 1, hp 1, kW Merlin 21s, and had an altered canopy structure with a flat, bullet-proof windscreen; the solid nose had mounted four. As a day and night fighter, prototype W was equipped with AI Mk IV equipment, complete with an "arrowhead" transmission aerial mounted between the central Brownings and receiving aerials through the outer wing tips, and it was painted in black RDM2a "Special Night" finish.

The prototype continued to serve as a test machine until it was scrapped on 28 January During flight testing, the Mosquito prototypes were modified to test a number of configurations. W was fitted with a turret behind the cockpit for drag tests, after which the idea was abandoned in July W had the first version of the Youngman Frill airbrake fitted to the fighter prototype.

The frill was mounted around the fuselage behind the wing and was opened by bellows and venturi effect to provide rapid deceleration during interceptions and was tested between January and August , but was also abandoned when lowering the undercarriage was found to have the same effect with less buffeting.

The Air Ministry authorised mass production plans on 21 June , by which time the Mosquito had become one of the world's fastest operational aircraft. A further 50 were unspecified; in July , these were confirmed to be unarmed fast bombers. III trainers and FB. VI bombers. Another were to be built by de Havilland Canada.

The Mosquito made a series of flights, including one rolling climb on one engine. Arnold and his aide Major Elwood Quesada , who wrote "I We were impressed by the appearance of the airplane that looks fast usually is fast, and the Mosquito was, by the standards of the time, an extremely well-streamlined airplane, and it was highly regarded, highly respected. The trials set up future production plans between Britain, Australia , and Canada.

Six days later, Arnold returned to America with a full set of manufacturer's drawings. As a result of his report, five companies Beech, Curtiss-Wright , Fairchild , Fleetwings, and Hughes were asked to evaluate the de Havilland data. The report by Beech Aircraft summed up the general view: "It appears as though this airplane has sacrificed serviceability, structural strength, ease of construction and flying characteristics in an attempt to use construction material which is not suitable for the manufacture of efficient airplanes.

While timber construction was considered outmoded by some, de Havilland claimed that their successes with techniques used for the DH 91 Albatross could lead to a fast, light bomber using monocoque-sandwich shell construction.

The ply-balsa-ply monocoque fuselage and one-piece wings with doped fabric covering would give excellent aerodynamic performance and low weight, combined with strength and stiffness. At the same time, the design team had to fight conservative Air Ministry views on defensive armament.

Guns and gun turrets, favoured by the ministry, would impair the aircraft's aerodynamic properties and reduce speed and manoeuvrability, in the opinion of the designers. Whilst submitting these arguments, Geoffrey de Havilland funded his private venture until a very late stage. The project was a success beyond all expectations. The initial bomber and photo-reconnaissance versions were extremely fast, whilst the armament of subsequent variants might be regarded as primarily offensive.

The design was noted for light and effective control surfaces that provided good manoeuvrability, but required that the rudder not be used aggressively at high speeds. Poor aileron control at low speeds when landing and taking off was also a problem for inexperienced crews. The conditions and impact of the stall were not severe. The wing did not drop unless the control column was pulled back. The nose drooped gently and recovery was easy. Early on in the Mosquito's operational life, the intake shrouds that were to cool the exhausts on production aircraft overheated.

Flame dampers prevented exhaust glow on night operations, but they had an effect on performance. Multiple ejector and open-ended exhaust stubs helped solve the problem and were used in the PR. VIII, B. IX, and B. XVI variants. This increased speed performance in the B. The oval-section fuselage was a frameless monocoque shell built in two vertically separate halves formed over a mahogany or concrete mould.

The shell sandwich skins comprised birch three-ply outers, with cores of Ecuadorean balsa. The main areas of the sandwich skin were only 0. The separate fuselage halves speeded construction, permitting access by personnel working in parallel with others, as the work progressed. Work on the separate half-fuselages included installation of control mechanisms and cabling. Screwed inserts into the inner skins that would be under stress in service were reinforced using round shear plates made from a fabric-Bakelite composite.

Transverse bulkheads were also compositely built-up with several species of timber, plywood, and balsa. Seven vertically halved bulkheads were installed within each moulded fuselage shell before the main "boxing up" operation. Bulkhead number seven was especially strongly built, since it carried the fitments and transmitted the aerodynamic loadings for the tailplane and rudder. For early production aircraft, the structural assembly adhesive was casein -based. At a later stage, this was replaced by " Aerolite ", a synthetic urea-formaldehyde type, which was more durable.

For the bonding together of the two halves "boxing up" , a longitudinal cut was machined into these edges. The profile of this cut was a form of V-groove. Part of the edge bonding process also included adding further longitudinal plywood lap strips on the outside of the shells. Two laminated wooden clamps were used in the after portion of the fuselage to provide supports during this complex gluing work.

The resulting large structural components had to be kept completely still and held in the correct environment until the glue cured. For finishing, a covering of doped madapollam a fine, plain-woven cotton fabric was stretched tightly over the shell and several coats of red, followed by silver dope, were added, followed by the final camouflage paint.

The all-wood wing pairs comprised a single structural unit throughout the wingspan, with no central longitudinal joint. There was a single continuous main spar and another continuous rear spar. Because of the combination of dihedral with the forward sweep of the trailing edges of the wings, this rear spar was one of the most complex units to laminate and to finish machining after the bonding and curing.

It had to produce the correct 3D tilt in each of two planes. Also, it was designed and made to taper from the wing roots towards the wingtips. Both principal spars were of ply box construction, using in general 0.

Spruce and plywood ribs were connected with gusset joints. The upper skin construction was in two layers of 0. The wing was installed into the roots by means of four large attachment points. These gave less drag. The radiators themselves were split into three sections: an oil cooler section outboard, the middle section forming the coolant radiator and the inboard section serving the cabin heater.

The wing contained metal-framed and -skinned ailerons , but the flaps were made of wood and were hydraulically controlled. The nacelles were mostly wood, although for strength, the engine mounts were all metal, as were the undercarriage parts. Wood was used to carry only in-plane loads, with metal fittings used for all triaxially loaded components such as landing gear, engine mounts, control-surface mounting brackets, and the wing-to-fuselage junction.

The control surfaces, the rudder , and elevator were aluminium -framed and fabric-covered. In November , several crashes occurred in the Far East. At first, these were thought to be a result of wing-structure failures.

This caused the upper surfaces to "lift" from the main spar. An investigating team led by Major Hereward de Havilland travelled to India and produced a report in early December stating, "the accidents were not caused by the deterioration of the glue, but by shrinkage of the airframe during the wet monsoon season".

The defects were similar, and none of the aircraft had been exposed to monsoon conditions or termite attack. The investigators concluded that construction defects occurred at the two plants. They found that the " The Air Ministry forestalled any loss of confidence in the Mosquito by holding to Major de Havilland's initial investigation in India that the accidents were caused "largely by climate" [90] To solve the problem of seepage into the interior, a strip of plywood was set along the span of the wing to seal the entire length of the skin joint.

The fuel systems gave the Mosquito good range and endurance, using up to nine fuel tanks. Two outer wing tanks each contained 58 imp gal 70 US gal; L of fuel. In the central fuselage were twin fuel tanks mounted between bulkhead number two and three aft of the cockpit. Drop tanks of 50 imp gal 60 US gal; L or imp gal US gal; L could be mounted under each wing, increasing the total fuel load to or imp gal or US gal; 2, or 3, L.

The design of the Mark VI allowed for a provisional long-range fuel tank to increase range for action over enemy territory, for the installation of bomb release equipment specific to depth charges for strikes against enemy shipping, or for the simultaneous use of rocket projectiles along with a imp gal US gal; L drop tank under each wing supplementing the main fuel cells.

VI had a wingspan of 54 ft 2 in Maximum take-off weight was 22, lb 10, kg and the range of the aircraft was 1, mi 1, km with a service ceiling of 26, ft 7, m. To reduce fuel vaporisation at the high altitudes of photographic reconnaissance variants, the central and inner wing tanks were pressurised.

The pressure venting cock located behind the pilot's seat controlled the pressure valve. As the altitude increased, the valve increased the volume applied by a pump. This system was extended to include field modifications of the fuel tank system. The engine oil tanks were in the engine nacelles. Each nacelle contained a 15 imp gal 18 US gal; 68 l oil tank, including a 2.

The oil tanks themselves had no separate coolant controlling systems. The coolant header tank was in the forward nacelle, behind the propeller. The remaining coolant systems were controlled by the coolant radiators shutters in the forward inner wing compartment, between the nacelle and the fuselage and behind the main engine cooling radiators, which were fitted in the leading edge. Electric-pneumatic operated radiator shutters directed and controlled airflow through the ducts and into the coolant valves, to predetermined temperatures.

Electrical power came from a 24 volt DC generator on the starboard No. The electric generators also powered the fire extinguishers. Located on the starboard side of the cockpit, the switches would operate automatically in the event of a crash. In flight, a warning light would flash to indicate a fire, should the pilot not already be aware of it.

In later models, to save liquids and engine clean up time in case of belly landing, the fire extinguisher was changed to semi-automatic triggers. The main landing gear, housed in the nacelles behind the engines, were raised and lowered hydraulically.

The main landing gear shock absorbers were de Havilland manufactured and used a system of rubber in compression, rather than hydraulic oleos, with twin pneumatic brakes for each wheel. The de Havilland Mosquito operated in many roles, performing medium bomber , reconnaissance , tactical strike , anti-submarine warfare and shipping attacks and night fighter duties, until the end of the war.

In , the journal Flight gave 19 September as date of the first PR mission, at an altitude "of some 20, ft". IV bomber, serial no. Germany still controlled continental airspace and the Fw s were often already airborne and at an advantageous altitude. Collisions within the formations also caused casualties. It was the Mosquito's excellent handling capabilities, rather than pure speed, that facilitated successful evasions.

The Mosquito was first announced publicly on 26 September after the Oslo Mosquito raid of 25 September. It was featured in The Times on 28 September and the next day the newspaper published two captioned photographs illustrating the bomb strikes and damage.

From mid to mid, Mosquito bombers flew high-speed, medium and low-altitude daylight missions against factories, railways and other pinpoint targets in Germany and German-occupied Europe.

From June , Mosquito bombers were formed into the Light Night Striking Force to guide RAF Bomber Command heavy bomber raids and as "nuisance" bombers, dropping Blockbuster bombs — 4, lb 1, kg "cookies" — in high-altitude, high-speed raids that German night fighters were almost powerless to intercept. As a night fighter from mid, the Mosquito intercepted Luftwaffe raids on Britain, notably those of Operation Steinbock in Starting in July , Mosquito night-fighter units raided Luftwaffe airfields.

As part of Group , it was flown as a night fighter and as an intruder supporting Bomber Command heavy bombers that reduced losses during and In the months between the foundation of 2TAF and its duties from D day onwards, vital training was interspersed with attacks on V-1 flying bomb launch sites. In another example of the daylight precision raids carried out by the Mosquitos of Nos. A second sortie in the afternoon inconvenienced another speech, by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels.

In I could at least fly as far as Glasgow in most of my aircraft, but not now! It makes me furious when I see the Mosquito. I turn green and yellow with envy. The British, who can afford aluminium better than we can, knock together a beautiful wooden aircraft that every piano factory over there is building, and they give it a speed which they have now increased yet again.

What do you make of that? There is nothing the British do not have. They have the geniuses and we have the nincompoops. After the war is over I'm going to buy a British radio set — then at least I'll own something that has always worked. During this daylight-raiding phase, Nos. The Roll of Honour shows 51 aircrew deaths from the end of May to April The low-level daylight attacks finished on 27 May with strikes on the Schott glass and Zeiss instrument works, both in Jena.

Subsequently, when low-level precision attacks required Mosquitos, they were allotted to squadrons operating the FB. IV version. Examples include the Aarhus air raid and Operation Jericho. Since the beginning of the year, the German fighter force had become seriously overstretched. The first Mosquito Squadron to be equipped with Oboe navigation was No.

On 1 June, the two pioneering Squadrons joined No. Initially they were engaged in moderately high altitude about 10, ft 3, m night bombing, with 67 trips during that summer, mainly to Berlin.

Soon after, Nos. In what were, initially, diversionary "nuisance raids," Mosquito bombers dropped 4, lb Blockbuster bombs or "Cookies. After Operation Overlord , the U-boat threat in the Western Approaches decreased fairly quickly, but correspondingly the Norwegian and Danish waters posed greater dangers. Despite an initially high loss rate, the Mosquito bomber variants ended the war with the lowest losses of any aircraft in RAF Bomber Command service.

Soft and comfortable underfoot, it also has great insulation and acoustic properties. And all of the best cork flooring products are anti-microbial—AKA perfect for people with allergies.

And that susceptibility means it also needs to be sealed more often than other types of wood flooring, which can be a hassle. Be careful buying from box stores! And strand-woven bamboo floors can have Janka ratings of or higher. That is seriously strong!

The angle at which wood is cut from the tree is one of the biggest factors in determining its final grain pattern. This cut is exactly what it sounds like—a plain, flat, straight cut perpendicular to the growth rings of the tree. Quarter sawn logs are first cut into quarters, then sliced across the grain. A rift sawn tree is cut like a pie before being sliced into strips or planks—which results in straight grains that look similar to quarter sawn, but without the flecks. Live sawn planks are just perpendicular slices through a tree going bottom-to-top.

That means live sawn boards are often the widest of the four and have the most visible natural variation. As we mentioned above, these cut patterns used to be most important when choosing solid hardwood flooring. It depends entirely on the manufacturer. Some of the best engineered wood flooring brands are starting to offer different cut patterns that were formerly available only in solid types of wood flooring.

These days, most of the hardwood available at retail especially engineered hardwood comes prefinished. Here are the most common. So which finish should you go with? Totally up to you. If you have specific questions about finishes, though, your best bet is to find a local flooring expert in your area and ask them.

Along with your finish, cut pattern, species, etc. Also called parquet, the pattern in which you install your wood will have a huge effect on its appearance.

Some of the most popular wood floor designs are:. At the end of the day, the best hardwood floors are… entirely up to you. Anticlimactic, we know! But in all seriousness, everyone has unique needs when it comes to their floors. The best wood flooring types are simply the ones that work best for your situation.

We hope this guide to different types of wood flooring has been helpful! Now, the only thing that remains is to find a top-rated flooring store in your area. They can help you find the perfect types of flooring for you. Or, if you want to see how hardwood stacks up to different flooring options, check out the links below. Our experts can help you out with any questions you have! Content Marketing Manager at FlooringStores and its parent company Broadlume, Samuel is a former travel writer, reformed English teacher, and semi-professional trivia host.

What is better for a living room — solid hardwood or engineered wood floors? Thanks for reading and great question! Unfortunately and I know this is incredibly unhelpful , I would say that it really comes down to choosing which qualities of a new floor are most important to you. But of course, if longevity is the more important quality for you, you might want to think about compromising on the plank width, since engineered can only be refinished a finite number of times and occasionally not at all.

Luckily, living rooms are comparatively low-traffic as opposed to hallways, for instance , so that might not be as big of a consideration. Good luck with your flooring search and let us know what you end up choosing! My cousin is thinking about replacing some of his carpet in the office and front room with hardwood so that it will be easier for him to clean up from messes and pets.

He really wants to get them done by a professional so that he will be able to have a cleaner home. I liked what you said about how the amount of force that it takes to push a steel ball halfway through wood is how to measure how hardwood is and is then rated on the Janka scale. Thanks so much for reading! Your cousin is absolutely right—hardwood is definitely going to be easier to clean.

That said, has your cousin thought about installing a vinyl product? Thanks again for sharing! I love how you displayed the unique design and personality of hickory hardwood flooring. This kind of flooring lines up well with my idea of making a very classy and luxury-style wooden cabin house as my main place to stay and would go great with the rest of my plans.

I am thinking about replacing some of my carpets in the office and front room with hardwood flooring and want to know that how much costs for wood flooring. Thanks for sharing this blog. The purpose for the wet sanding is to bring up the grain, or nap, so that during the second sanding it gets removed resulting in an ultra-smooth board to burn on. Smoother surfaces enable the tips to glide across them easier and allow for finer detail in your artwork.

This board is a piece of plywood. The leftmost section is unsanded. The middle section has been sanded using grit sandpaper. The right section was sanded with grit sandpaper, then misted with water, allowed to dry and sanded again with grit sandpaper. You can see the difference each step makes on the wood surface. I think this covers the main items for wood types and prepping the wood. Next blog I will discuss several different techniques of transferring a pattern to wood. I will add to this list if I encounter more woods to burn on.

I did look it up to see if it was considered toxic and the general consensus was no. Take normal safety precautions like burning in a well ventilated area and see what you think. I have been wood burning pet memorials on urns and plaques. Since I do not have great knowledge on various woods; I have had many challenges on getting the correct techniques on not using the correct nips; but issues with setting heat and pressure.

Thank you Brenda for sharing not only the pros and cons; but showing us your work vs the woods that you have used. Truly appreciate it. They are dry. Is elm safe to use in pyrography, or is it one of the toxic woods? Great question. Keep in mind we are all different and what might not bother one person could be an irritant for someone else.

Brenda, Thank you, for your reply. This is helpful information. More than anything it is useful to have a person with experience to confirm what I think I am reading. Hi there! My husband brought home some scrap bits from his cabinet shop and I piddled around with one a few months ago and it was lovely! Not too dark at all. The burn with my bleh crappy tool at the time was smooth and definitely dark enough to see. I even finished it with a paste wax he made from beeswax and mineral oil and it was just perfect.

It ended up becoming part of a teacher gift. That was new info to me!! On to another solution for my project idea I hope. Thanks for sharing your artwork with me.

Big headache and a touch worried to sleeping…um…suggestions please? Thank you. Good choice. Cherry is beautiful for furniture, but not great for pyrography art. Hi Brenda. Looks vex all your blogs and videos. I want to make keepsake boxes for my family for Christmas and have purchased basswood boxes.

I would like to burn something on each lid inside and out and on the bottom inside of the box. I have read all your related blogs but still am a little unsure.

Do I wet down both the inside and outside of the box and say three standings. Also in finishing would you recommend a spray finish and if so which one. Thanks for all your help. Spray finishes are the easiest and I would use either a satin lacquer or polycrylic. As for which brand that is more dependent on what is available where you are at. I live in a small town, so my choices are very limited.

Quite truthfully I doubt any of them are that different from each other. Hi Brenda!! Thank you for this great information I bought a wood burning kit and I never used.. I hurried and tried to buy what people recommended. Anchor seal classic was the recommendation on newly cut wood. Will I be able to do this art project after I stand it or the wax will prevent me from burning the wood? Now my second question when you want to add color to your project on wood cookie what brand pain do you use and what type of sealer do you apply to make it last?

Thank you very much. Todd said that the general rule of thumb is 1 year per inch of wood, so it might be two years before the wood it ready. Yes, just make sure that sand down far enough to remove all traces of the product that might has soaked in.

The most durable outdoor finish is Spar Urethane. Make sure you get the variety rated for outdoor use. Keep in mind that even though they claim their product is clear it does impart a yellow tinge to the wood. How much of a tinge varies depending on the wood.

As for paint. What I would recommend is using products that have high lightfastness ratings. Regardless of what medium you use to add color, the color should have a high lightfast rating.

You have time before the wood will be ready, so now is the time to start experimenting and planning. This can vary depending on the brand. For example, faber castell polychromos colored pencils has more that are rated very high than prismacolor premier does.

You should know in a couple of months if there are colors you should avoid and how much the finish will interact with the color. I have been wood burning for years as a hobby and I give my work as gifts for birthdays and Christmas gifts. Although I am not nearly as talented as you are. I started out with a fixed tip wood burner I purchased in a hardware store and wood burned an owl which everyone seemed to love and someone even bought it.

Yet I have not really got into the selling of my artwork and actually still burn for pleasure and gifts. I am near to 71 now and still love to burn and find that the preparation is half the pleasure of a good project.

I could not agree with you more when you say to be careful about what kind of wood you burn on such as finished wood because your face is close to your work. I have even gone as far as turning on a fan to draw the smoke out of the immediate area and a window fan to draw the smoke and fumes out of the room I am working in. My wife is my biggest fan so my walls are adorned with burnings I have done for the past 40 years or so yet I knew people in the past that purchased a few of my burnings and they are now in Australia, Great Britain, and somewhere in the US, I think Las Vegas.

I do not mean to sound like I am bragging at all about that. The thing is I work mostly from patterns but have drawn some of my own. Could you recommend a source for some good patterns and I do not expect them to be free And also I use a colwood interchangeable tip burner and could you recommend a good tip package that I can purchase Wood Craft Supply Stores Near Me English that basicaly covers most of what I am looking for such as animal fur, human hair, and intricate design such as leaves flowers and such?

Love your artistic talent I am a fan. Hi Michael, thanks for the comment. I think there are only 2 pen tips that are essential: a writer and a shader. With those two you can create just about every including the textures you mentioned. The community post would answer most if not all of your questions. It is about a week old, so can be found easily. Almost every single tutorial on my tutorial page includes a free pattern. Plus I have a number of patterns for sale on etsy.

Bom… vou seguir minha saga em busca de um achado milagroso. Marcus bastos. Muitas pessoas, inclusive eu, queimam em compensado. Hi Brenda, As with everything, this is really useful information! I followed these preparation steps. One of the boards warped a bit and also got a small crack at the edge. Should I perhaps use some other hanger that can be applied differently?

I asked Todd and he said that the board should never be super wet; especially if you live in a really dry climate. Phoenix Arizona is a good example of that. Instead just a light misting of water is all that is needed. Never soak the board. Really dry climates cause the ends of the board to dry super fast compared to the center. If the crack is small, place scotch tape on the front and back side of the board so that the tape covers the crack.

Make sure the tape extends to the top or the edge of the board where the crack starts. Prop the board up on its side so the crack is on top and fill the crack with super glue. The tape will keep the glue from running out.

Let it dry and then remove the tape.



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