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The following information will describe how coopers jointer plane youtube men made their living. I think I'm more fascinated by the pics of your shop than by the actual subjects of the threads. The cooper usually installed two hoops on each end of the cask if it was small; casks from the 36 gallon barrel to those larger might require three hoops on each end. The procedure is one that could only be accomplished by practice. With the staves all in position, and loosely encircled by the raising up hoop, the cooper would push down on the hoop with his hands to effect the first tightening of the staves. Ed Kennell 21, It is also coopers jointer plane youtube easier to keep coopers jointer plane youtube consistent angle on the edge of the stave than to try and keep a plane and the correct angle every time one picks it up.

Curiously enough this one from the marks and wear on it never had a stand but it was cantilevered on some type of special block on the heel. It will not be used that way here since my back is not very forgiving to leaning for long. It will be used on the vise as shown in photo. Part of family were also coopers. Although I did not inherit many of those tools I did inherit the knowledge on how to make barrels.

Here is a photo of one recently completed many years ago as I was also building my bench. Just imagine how many projects have been completed by first building the most important tool.. I think I'm more fascinated by the pics of your shop than by the actual subjects of the threads. Was there a tool or fixture to hold the stave while jointing?

Seems risky to fingers to move piece over tool instead of vice versa. A place up the road here processes barrel wood. Lots of PA hardwood trucking in and pallets of the stave strips headed out. At one time they would give you the rejects but I figured folks got greedy and now send them over to the stove pallet plant.

Not sure but they make a sweet camp fire. A small pile burns for hours nice bluish flame. No tool guide or fixture. One does have to be careful when doing very small pieces but barrel staves are usually not that narrow where ones fingers get that close to cutter.

Some of the best firewood there is. There is a certain risk to it. Reason why its done this way is the same as for any time a decision is made to run the tool over the work vs running the work over the tool or vise versa.

Its about Millers Falls Jointer Plane Knight efficiency and efficacy first, and second its convenience. In this particular operation it would take forever to run tool over work, since work would have to be clamped in a vise and constantly be removed to ensure that all four edges are correct and consistent. This way one quickly performs the task and checks it without wasting any time removing it from a vise, putting it back again and at the same time continuously picking up and dropping the tool.

It is also much easier to keep a consistent angle on the edge of the stave than to try and keep a plane and the correct angle every time one picks it up. Just refer to the video posted before. Thank you. There would be no threads without the shop but then there could be no shop without the threads.

Indeed the most important tool in my life. It was not the first bench built here but it is the one that was built in honor and memory of those who shared their knowledge with me and inspire me every day of my life. Thank you for the great explanation. I watched a barrel maker at work in Williamsburg years ago but he was at the earlier stage using a spokeshave for roughing the staves.

Never thought much about what came after! You need to be a member in order to leave a comment. Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy! Already have an account? Sign in here. The term medullary ray refers to the strong fibers that extend from the pith to the surface. The next step involved placing a single board with one end positioned in the jaw of a shaving or shingle horse to be shaped.

The shaving horse was a wooden bench specially designed to function as a vise, work-bench and seat, all in one. The illustrations that follow show a shaving horse with the 'jaw' closed and then open and ready to accept a board.

The harder he pushed on the foot, the more tightly the jaw clamped down. The piece of wood was held as tight in the shaving horse as it might have been in a bench vice, but it had some advantages over a bench vice.

Although it might appear crude at first glance, the design of the shaving horse was sophisticated in terms of ergonomics.

The bench allowed the cooper to sit while performing this portion of the work. And the operation of the jaw, by pushing on the foot, allowed the jaw to be opened and closed as needed to reposition the board easily and quickly.

The cooper used drawknives to shave off thin slivers of the wood; a wide, slightly curved one sometimes called a heading knife for the outside surface, and a narrow, sharply curved one sometimes called a hollowing knife for the inside.

The illustration that follows shows a heading drawknife that would have been used for shaving the outside surface of the stave. As long as the piece of wood chosen for the stave was fine grained and clean of knots which is one reason why oak was the wood of choice used for casks , and the drawknife was sharpened, the job of shaping the stave would go smoothly and quickly for the experienced cooper.

The side of the board that would become the outside surface of the stave was shaved to a convex curve, while the side that would become the inside surface was shaved to a concave curve. Then both of the long edges would be tapered slightly toward the ends.

The initial tapering of the ends, commonly called listing , might also be accomplished by the use of a short handled side ax. The side ax was called that because only one side of its blade, like a chisel, was sharpened. As the edges were being shaped, they would also be slightly beveled, or rather cut on a chamfer, so that they would all fit tightly together when placed side by side in a circle. As the work of shaping the staves progressed, and a greater degree of control was needed in shaving the edges for a tight fit, a tool called a spokeshave would be used.

The spoke-shave, as shown in the following illustration, was essentially a drawknife that was small and more manageable. With the completion of the task of listing and bevelling the staves, the first part of the job of constructing a cask was finished.

It was then time to start on the second part, which was the position-ing and connecting together all the staves. The cooper held a metal hoop, referred to as the raising up hoop, in one hand at a distance off the floor almost the length of the staves. With the other hand, he placed one stave after another in a circle inside the hoop. The procedure is one that could only be accomplished by practice. In the hands of an inexperienced person, the staves would probably fly all over the place before the circle could be completed.

But the cooper, through his many years of apprenticeship, would become dextrous enough to accomplish this part of the job with ease. With the staves all in position, and loosely encircled by the raising up hoop, the cooper would push down on the hoop with his hands to effect the first tightening of the staves. At this point, the staves would still be basically straight boards, albeit shaped slightly.

A larger hoop, called the dingee hoop, would be pushed down over the opposite end of the circle of staves to hold them together until the staves would be bent into the bulging side cask shape.

To bend the staves into the characteristic bulging shape, they needed to be made malleable. That was accomplished by softening the wood by heat or steam. Heavy iron hoops called truss hoops would be pushed down over the ends of the staves held together by the raising up hoop. This is where the adze came handy. The adze used by a cooper, as shown in the following illustration, was similar to other adzes, having a sharpened blade set at a right angle to the handle.

The primary difference between the cooper's adze and other such tools was the degree of the curve of the so-called colt's foot blade. Using the poll head of the adze to hammer the truss hoops down over the staves gave a much tighter hold than the cooper could achieve by pushing them on with his hands.

The cooper would then wet the cask's staves. A fire was made in a container over which the cask could be positioned. The heat on the wet staves would make them malleable enough to draw together the loose ends opposite those originally held by the raising up and the truss hoops. The cooper used a windlass with hemp ropes to pull the steamed staves together so that truss hoops could be forced down over the ends.

The cask was then left to cool and dry, and during that process the wood became 'set'. The dried cask was now referred to as a gun. The third step in the process of making the cask was now ready to begin. That step included the finishing of the ends, and the cutting of the grooves into the inside surface of the staves into which the heads would forced.

The ends of the cask were called the chimes , or, variously chines and the process of bevelling and finishing the chimes was called chiming. Using the adze, the cooper would begin to chop off bits of the ends of the staves to form a bevelled edge angled toward the inside of the cask.

The cooper could only do so fine a job with the adze; to finish the edge more finely, he would use a topping plane. The topping plane was similar to a normal block plane, but with a body that was curved like the edge that it would be used on.

The groove, into which the head would be positioned, was called a croze , because it was cut with a tool called a croze. The croze tool was a small block plane sized and shaped to accomodate the convex shape of the inside of the cask. After the first croze was cut, the cooper would check the size of the cask in process to make sure that it would have the proper capacity desired.

He would use a pair of dividers, called the diagonals , to take the measurement. The capacity could be adjusted at this point, if necessary, by altering the spacing of the opposite head. The fourth step in the process of construct-ing a cask was the making and installing of the heads.

Between four and six flat boards would be fastened together on edge by dowel pins to form a wide enough piece from which to cut out each head. Between the flat boards, the cooper would place flagging , or rush, to act as gasketing material.

The cooper would then measure the diameter of the croze, the groove he had cut with the croze. The radius of the head would measure one sixth the circumference of the groove. He would then draw a circle with a radius of that size onto the connected boards, and cut the head out with a bow saw.

The edge of the head would then be evened up by the use of the adze, drawknives or plane. As part of the process of smoothing the edge of the head, a double bevel, known as the basle , would be shaved into the edge. Before the heads were fitted into the crozes, the bunghole was drilled into one of them. The bunghole would be located near one of the ends of the center board, of which the head was constructed.

The bunghole's location was important because it would be used to maneuver the head into place. Although it was stated that the bunghole would be 'drilled' into the one head, it was not drilled as one would today. Rather, the hole was bored out with a regular cross-handled auger.

The hole was then reamed to a taper using a pod auger. The taper would later allow a tapered stopper or plug to be tightened into the hole. The heads were installed into the croze grooves in two manners. The cask, consisting of the staves held together by the truss hoops, would be stood upright.

The hoops on the end resting on the floor would be loosened slightly.

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