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Newtown: The Taunton Press. — p. — ISSN Fine Woodworking provides all woodworkers with unique inspiration and information to improve their skills, accuracy and efficiency. It is the most trusted resource for unbiased, credible information among passionate woodworkers. «Fine Woodworking» — отличный ресурс для совершенствующихся столяров, от целеустремленных новичков до состоявшихся мастеров. Журнал всегда полон подробных описаний, фотографий, схем, пошаговых инструкций и полезной информации для выполнения реальных проектов. Публикуются обзоры новых приспособлений, инструментов, о. В этой теме выкладываем журналы "Fine Woodworking" В дальнейшем тема "Журналы разные (на английском)" будет расформирована и в первый пост будут   Fine Woodworking Страниц: Формат: PDF Размер файла: 44 Мб Язык: English. “ Скачать с HotFile Скачать с iFolder Скачать с Depositfiles. viter50, 21 авг Uploaded by. maxi_ Description  Fine Woodworking - Issue 6. Fine Woodworking + WoodWorking Projects Part 2. Better Boxes. The Toolbox Book. Fine Woodworking № June Box by Box. Basic Box Making. Fine Woodworking. Fine Woodworking № Fine Woodworking.  CURRENT ISSUE ONLINE ARCHIVES OF 1,30O+ARTICLES, AND PROJECT PT-ANS MORETHAN35O SKILL-BUIIDING VIDEOS ASKTHEEXPERTS: Peter Gedryson finishing FINE \TOOD\TORKiNG. Howto contact us: FtneWoodwotulng, TheTaunton Press,63S.

Native Americansalso known as American IndiansFirst AmericansIndigenous Americans and other termsare the indigenous peoples of the United States, sometimes including Hawaii and territories of the United States and sometimes limited to the mainland. There are federally recognized tribes living within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The ancestors of living Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15, years ago, possibly much earlier, from Asia via Beringia.

European colonization of the Americaswhich began inresulted in a precipitous decline in Native American population because of new diseases to which they had no immunitywarsethnic cleansingfine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload enslavement.

Most Native Americans live in small-town or rural areas. When the United States was created, established Native American tribes were generally considered semi-independent nations, as they generally woodwprking in communities separate from white settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of ended recognition of independent native nations, and started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law.

This law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty. For this reason, many but not all Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law.

The Indian Citizenship Act Fine Woodworking Issue 57 of granted U. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitutionallowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, and extended the Pdv Fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades.

Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population, cultural, and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.

As most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the contact were written by Europeans. Ethnographers commonly classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas. The ten cultural areas are as follows:. At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants.

Some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.

The majority of indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands to use the entire tribe. At that time, Europeans had cultures that had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that isaue extremely different. The differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, and social disruption.

Even before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseasesto which they had not yet acquired immunity ; the diseases were endemic fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload the Spanish and other Europeans, and spread by direct contact and likely through pigs that escaped from expeditions.

William M. Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in "; "The decline of native American populations was rapid and severe, probably the fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload demographic disaster ever. Old World diseases were the primary issuue. In many regions, particularly the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact.

Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today Fine Woodworking Sanders Pdf constitutes the U. Denevan's 3. Fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload Their Number Become Thinned Dobyns' work, being the highest single point estimate by far within the realm of professional academic research on the topic, has been criticized for being "politically motivated". During the 19th century, woodworkinf ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.

Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Uplod American lands, warfare between the groups, and rising tensions.

Inthe U. Congress passed the Indian Uploar Act fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload, authorizing the government to relocate Native Americans from their homelands within established states to lands west of the Mississippi Riveraccommodating European-American expansion. This resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, woodworkiny the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears.

Contemporary Native Americans have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands with sovereignty and treaty rights upon which federal Indian law and a federal Indian trust relationship is based. Literature is at the growing forefront of American Indian studies in many genres with exception only to fiction, which some traditional American Indians actually find insulting due to conflicts with tribal oral traditions.

The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload controversial. The ways Native Americans refer to themselves vary by region and generation, with many older Native Americans self-identifying as "Indians" or "American Indians", while younger Native Americans often identify as "Indigenous" or "Aboriginal". By comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations.

It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and the present-day United States. The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringiaa land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska during the Last Fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload Periodand then spread southward throughout the Americas over subsequent generations.

Genetic evidence suggests at least three waves of migrants arrived from Asia, with the first occurring at least 15, years ago. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the early modern period.

While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus ' arrival on the continent, in practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until they were conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades, or even centuries, after Columbus' initial landing.

Native Isske cultures are not normally included in characterizations of advanced Stone Age cultures as " Neolithic ," which fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload a category that more often includes only the cultures in Eurasia, Africa, and other regions.

The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips ' book Method and Theory in American Archaeology.

They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living on this continent since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories. Other tribes have stories that recount migrations fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River. Archeological and linguistic data has enabled scholars to fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload some of the migrations within the Americas.

Archeological evidence at the Gault site near Austin, Texas, demonstrates that pre-Clovis peoples settled in Texas some 16,—20, years ago. Evidence of pre-Clovis cultures have also been found in the Paisley Caves in south-central Oregon and butchered mastodon bones in a sinkhole near Tallahassee, Florida. More convincingly but also controversially, another pre-Clovis has been discovered at Monte VerdeChile. The Clovis culturea megafauna hunting culture, is primarily identified uplpad the use of fluted spear points.

Artifacts from fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload culture were first excavated in near Clovis, New Mexico. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis pointa flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft.

Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11, and 10, radiocarbon years B.

The Folsom Tradition was woocworking by the use of Folsom points as projectile tips and activities known from kill sites, where slaughter and butchering of bison took place. Woodworkimg, anthropologists, and archaeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into North America, later than the first Paleo-Indians.

They constructed large multi-family dwellings in their villages, which were used seasonally. People did not live there year-round, uploav for the summer to hunt and fish, and to gather food supplies for the winter. Since the s, archeologists have explored and dated eleven Middle Archaic sites in present-day Louisiana and Florida at which early cultures woodworiing complexes with multiple earthwork mounds ; pvf were societies of hunter-gatherers rather than the settled agriculturalists believed necessary according to the theory of Neolithic Revolution to sustain such large villages over long periods.

The prime example is Watson Brake in northern Louisiana, fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload mound complex is dated to BCE, making it the oldest, dated site in North America for such complex construction. Construction of the mounds went on for years until the site was abandoned about BCE, probably due to changing environmental conditions.

The Oshara Tradition people lived from to CE. Poverty Point culture is a Late Archaic archaeological culture that inhabited the area of the lower Mississippi Valley and surrounding Gulf Coast. The Formative, Classic and post-Classic stages are sometimes incorporated together as the Post-archaic period, which runs from BCE onward.

The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes, [45] [46] This period is considered a developmental stage without any massive changes in a short period, but fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload having a continuous development in stone and bone tools, leather working, textile manufacture, tool production, cultivation, and shelter construction.

The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast were of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they shared certain beliefs, traditions, and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol. Their gift-giving feast, potlatchis a highly complex event where people gather in order to commemorate special events.

These events include the raising of a Totem pole or the appointment or election of a new fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload. The most famous artistic feature of the culture is the Totem pole, with carvings of animals and other characters to commemorate cultural beliefs, legends, and notable events. The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archaeologists date from approximately CE to CE, varying regionally.

The civilization flourished in what is now the MidwesternEasternand Southeastern United States. Numerous pre-Columbian societies were sedentary, such as the Pueblo peoplesMandanHidatsa and others, and some established large settlements, even cities, such as Cahokiain what is now Illinois. The Iroquois League of Nations or "People of the Long House" was a politically advanced, democratic society, which is thought by some historians to have influenced the United States Constitution[51] [52] with the Senate passing a resolution to this effect in AfterEuropean exploration and colonization of the Americas revolutionized how the Old and New Worlds perceived themselves.

Many of the fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload major contacts were in Florida and the Gulf coast by Spanish explorers. From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans sharply declined. There are a number of documented cases woodworkkng diseases were deliberately spread among Native Uppoad as a form of biological warfare. The most well-known example occurred inwhen Sir Jeffery AmherstCommander-in-Chief of the Forces of the British Armywrote praising woodworkint use of smallpox-infected blankets to "extirpate" the Indian race.

Blankets infected with smallpox were given to Native Americans besieging Fort Pitt. The effectiveness of the wooworking is unclear. InFr. Andrew White of the Society of Jesus established a mission woofworking what is now the state of Marylandand the purpose of the mission, stated through an interpreter to the uploqd of an Indian tribe there, was "to extend civilization and instruction to his ignorant race, and fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload them the way to heaven".

Andrew's diaries report that bya community had been founded which woodwlrking named St. Mary's, and the Indians were sending their children there "to be educated among the English". The same records report that in"a school for humanities was opened by our Society in the centre of [Maryland], directed by two of the Fathers; and the native youth, applying themselves assiduously to study, made good progress.

Maryland and the recently established school sent two boys to St. Omer fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload yielded in abilities to few Europeans, when competing for the honor of being first in their class.

Fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload that not gold, nor silver, nor the other products of the earth alone, but men also are gathered from thence to bring those regions, which foreigners fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload unjustly called ferocious, to a higher state of virtue and cultivation. Through the midth century the Beaver Fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload were fought over the fur trade between the Iroquois and the Huronsthe northern Algonquiansand their French allies.

During the war the Iroquois destroyed several large tribal confederacies, including the HuronNeutralErieSusquehannockand Shawneeand became dominant in the region and enlarged their territory. Inthe Sisters of the Order of Saint Ursula founded Ursuline Academy in New Orleanswhich is currently the oldest continuously operating school for woodworkinh and the oldest Catholic school in the United States.

From fine woodworking issue 279 pdf upload time of its foundation, it offered the first classes for Native American girls, and would later offer classes for female African-American slaves and free women of woodsorking.

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