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Composite veneers sydney or composite resin veneers. Composite Veneers, also known as Composite Bonding are thin coatings that are placed over the surface of the teeth to enhance their appearance. The composite is a tooth coloured material that comes in different shades.  Composite veneers vs. composite bonding. Natural Composite Veneers by Sydney Cosmetic Dentist, Dr Karim Habib. Composite veneers and composite bonding are essentially the same procedure. We refer to the treatment as composite bonding when the composite is only applied to part of the surface of the tooth for example, in the case of a chipped front tooth. Composite veneers on the other hand involve applying the composite to the entire front surface of the tooth. Porcelain Veneers Sydney NSW - Same-day veneers at justSMILE in Ramsgate near Kogarah are a seamless and natural looking cosmetic dentistry treatment.  Porcelain veneers are thin porcelain shells that can recreate your beautiful smile. Correct misshaped teeth. Give the appearance of alignment. Can be fabricated within the same day. Mimic the translucent quality of natural teeth. Create a seamlessly beautiful finish. Repair chipped or cracked teeth. Veneers are an important tool for the cosmetic dentist. A dentist may use one veneer to restore a single tooth that may have been fractured or discolored, or multiple teeth to create a “Hollywood” type of makeover. Many people have small teeth resulting in spaces that may not be easily closed by orthodontics.  Multiple veneers can close these spaces, lengthen teeth that have been shortened by wear, fill the black triangles between teeth caused by gum recession, provide a uniform colour, shape, and symmetry, and make the teeth appear straight. Dentists also recommend using thin porcelain veneers to strengthen worn teeth. It is also applied to yellow teeth that won’t whiten. Thin veneers is an effective option for ageing patients with worn dentition. Sydney Sixers Sydney Thunder. Imperial conversion J. Flame dampers prevented exhaust glow on night operations, but they had an effect on performance. Westland Lysander. IIIs, 76 FB.

Sydney is home to dozens of bird species, [88] which commonly include the Australian raven , Australian magpie , crested pigeon , noisy miner and the pied currawong , among others. Introduced bird species ubiquitously found in Sydney are the common myna , common starling , house sparrow and the spotted dove.

At Sydney's primary weather station at Observatory Hill , extreme temperatures have ranged from The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs.

Autumn and spring are the transitional seasons, with spring showing a larger temperature variation than autumn. The Bureau of Meteorology reported that to were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, which tend to occur during the spring and summer.

The rainfall has a moderate to low variability and it is spread through the months, though it has been erratic in recent times.

Precipitation is usually higher in late summer through to early winter when the subtropical ridge is to the south of Australia, permitting easterly winds to dominate, and lower in late winter to early spring when the subtropical ridge is to the north, as it brings dry winds from the continent's interior towards the city, since it rotates counter-clockwise. In spring and summer, black nor'easters are usually the cause of heavy rain events, though other forms of low-pressure areas may also bring Natural Wood Veneer Suppliers Form heavy deluge and afternoon thunderstorms.

In summer, most rain falls from thunderstorms and in winter from cold fronts. The city is also prone to severe storms. One such storm was the hailstorm , which produced massive hailstones up to 9 cm 3. The CBD extends about 3 kilometres 1. Most of these suburbs measure less than 1 square kilometre 0. The Sydney CBD is characterised by considerably narrow streets and thoroughfares, created in its convict beginnings in the 18th century.

Several localities, distinct from suburbs, exist throughout Sydney's inner reaches. Central and Circular Quay are transport hubs with ferry, rail, and bus interchanges. Chinatown , Darling Harbour, and Kings Cross are important locations for culture, tourism, and recreation.

Opened on 1 April , its shop fronts are an exact replica of the original internal shopping facades. There is a long trend of gentrification amongst Sydney's inner suburbs.

Pyrmont located on the harbour was redeveloped from a centre of shipping and international trade to an area of high density housing , tourist accommodation, and gambling.

It had a period when it was known as an area of prostitution. The terrace style housing has largely been retained and Darlinghurst has undergone significant gentrification since the s. On the city harbour edge, the historic suburb and wharves of Millers Point are being built up as the new area of Barangaroo. These span up to about 11 km west of the CBD. Suburbs in the Inner West have historically housed working class industrial workers, but have undergone gentrification over the 20th century.

The region now mainly features medium- and high-density housing. Major features in the area include the University of Sydney and the Parramatta River, as well as a large cosmopolitan community and the nightlife hub on King Street in Newtown.

Strathfield Railway Station is a secondary railway hub within Sydney, and major station on the Suburban and Northern lines.

It was constructed in , [] and will be a future terminus of Parramatta Light Rail. They include some of the most affluent and advantaged areas in the country, with some streets being amongst the most expensive in the world. Major landmarks include Bondi Beach , a major tourist site; which was added to the Australian National Heritage List in ; [] and Bondi Junction , featuring a Westfield shopping centre and an estimated office work force of 6, by , [] as well as a train station on the T4 Eastern Suburbs Line.

Randwick's 'Collaboration Area' has a baseline estimate of 32, jobs by , according to the Greater Sydney Commission. Southern Sydney includes the suburbs in the local government areas of former Rockdale , Georges River Council collectively known as the St George area , and broadly it also includes the suburbs in the local government area of Sutherland , south of the Georges River colloquially known as 'The Shire'.

The Kurnell peninsula , near Botany Bay, is the site of the first landfall on the eastern coastline made by Lt. Hurstville, a large suburb with a multitude of commercial buildings and high-rise residential buildings dominating the skyline, has become a CBD for the southern suburbs.

The North Shore , an informal geographic term referring to the northern metropolitan area of Sydney, consists of Artarmon , Chatswood , Roseville , Lindfield , Killara , Gordon , Pymble , Hornsby and many others. It is made up of suburbs located within Ku-ring-gai and Hornsby Shire councils. North Sydney itself consists of a large commercial centre, with its own business centre, which contains the second largest concentration of high-rise buildings in Sydney, after the CBD.

North Sydney is dominated by advertising, marketing businesses and associated trades, with many large corporations holding office in the region. The Northern Beaches area includes Manly , one of Sydney's most popular holiday destinations for much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The region also features Sydney Heads , a series of headlands which form the 2 km 1. The Australian census found the Northern Beaches to be the most white and mono-ethnic district in Australia, contrasting with its more-diverse neighbours, the North Shore and the Central Coast.

The Hills district generally refers to the suburbs in north-western Sydney including the local government areas of The Hills Shire Veneer Suppliers Sydney , parts of the City of Parramatta Council and Hornsby Shire. Actual suburbs and localities that are considered to be in the Hills District can be somewhat amorphous and variable.

For example, the Hills District Historical Society restricts its definition to the Hills Shire local government area, yet its study area extends from Parramatta to the Hawkesbury. The region is so named for its characteristically comparatively hilly topography as the Cumberland Plain lifts up, joining the Hornsby Plateau. Windsor and Old Windsor Roads are historic roads in Australia, as they are the second and third roads, respectively, laid in the colony.

The greater western suburbs encompasses the areas of Parramatta, the sixth largest business district in Australia, settled the same year as the harbour-side colony, [] Bankstown , Liverpool, Penrith , and Fairfield.

Covering 5, square kilometres 2, sq mi and having an estimated resident population as at of 2,,, western Sydney has the most multicultural suburbs in the country.

The population is predominantly of a working class background, with major employment in the heavy industries and vocational trade. Further to the southwest is the region of Macarthur and the city of Campbelltown , a significant population centre until the s considered a region separate to Sydney proper. Macarthur Square , a shopping complex in Campbelltown, has become one of the largest shopping complexes in Sydney. The earliest structures in the colony were built to the bare minimum of standards.

Upon his appointment, Governor Lachlan Macquarie set ambitious targets for the architectural design of new construction projects. The city now has a world heritage listed building, several national heritage listed buildings, and dozens of Commonwealth heritage listed buildings as evidence of the survival of Macquarie's ideals. From the late s there was a shift towards Classical architecture. Mortimer Lewis designed the Australian Museum in As the wealth of the settlement increased, and as Sydney developed into a metropolis after Federation in , its buildings became taller.

Sydney's first tower was Culwulla Chambers on the corner of King Street and Castlereagh Street which topped out at 50 metres feet making 12 floors. The Commercial Traveller's Club, located in Martin Place and built in , was of similar height at 10 floors. The Great Depression had a tangible influence on Sydney's architecture. New structures became more restrained with far less ornamentation than was common before the s.

The most notable architectural feat of this period is the Harbour Bridge. Its steel arch was designed by John Bradfield and completed in A total of 39, tonnes of structural steel span the metres 1, feet between Milsons Point and Dawes Point. Modern and International architecture came to Sydney from the s. Since its completion in the city's Opera House has become a World Heritage Site and one of the world's most renowned pieces of Modern design.

Utzon was awarded the Pritzker Prize in for his work on the Opera House. An entrance from The Goods Line —a pedestrian pathway and former railway line—is located on the eastern border of the site.

Due to environmental and economic pressures, there has been a noted trend towards denser housing. The Government has announced plans to sell nearly historic public housing properties in the harbourside neighbourhoods of Millers Point, Gloucester Street, and The Rocks. Sydney is one of the most expensive real estate markets globally. It is only second to Hong Kong with the average property costing 14 times the annual Sydney salary as of December Terrace houses are found in the inner suburbs such as Paddington, The Rocks, Potts Point and Balmain—many of which have been the subject of gentrification.

In the present day, terrace houses now make up some of the most valuable real estate in the city. Federation homes, constructed around the time of Federation in , are located in suburbs such as Penshurst , Turramurra , and in Haberfield. Haberfield is known as "The Federation Suburb" [ by whom? Workers cottages are found in Surry Hills, Redfern , and Balmain. California bungalows are common in Ashfield , Concord , and Beecroft.

The Royal Botanic Garden is the most important green space in the Sydney region, hosting both scientific and leisure activities. The Royal National Park was proclaimed on 26 April and with 13, hectares 51 square miles is the second oldest national park in the world.

The largest park in the Sydney metropolitan area is Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, established in with an area of 15, hectares 59 square miles.

The area now known as The Domain was set aside by Governor Arthur Phillip in as his private reserve. This makes them the oldest botanic garden in Australia. Researchers from Loughborough University have ranked Sydney amongst the top ten world cities that are highly integrated into the global economy. The prevailing economic theory in effect during early colonial days was mercantilism , as it was throughout most of Western Europe.

Governor Lachlan Macquarie solved the second problem by creating two coins from every Spanish silver dollar in circulation. Wheat, gold, and other minerals became additional export industries towards the end of the s.

Protectionist policies after federation allowed for the creation of a manufacturing industry which became the city's largest employer by the s. Most foreign companies in Sydney maintain significant sales and service functions but comparably less production, research, and development capabilities.

Sydney has been ranked between the fifteenth and the fifth most expensive city in the world and is the most expensive city in Australia. The labour force of Greater Sydney Region in was 2,, with a participation rate of In , Unemployment in the City of Sydney averaged 4.

Each day about , commuters travel from Western Sydney to the CBD and suburbs in the east and north of the city. Home ownership in Sydney was less common than renting prior to the Second World War but this trend has since reversed. Bank collapses were a frequent occurrence and a crisis point was reached in when 12 banks failed.

It was replaced in this role in by the Reserve Bank of Australia which is also based in Sydney. Sydney has been a manufacturing city since the protectionist policies of the s.

Sydney is a gateway to Australia for many international visitors. It has hosted over 2. The city also received 8. Major developmental projects designed to increase Sydney's tourism sector include a casino and hotel at Barangaroo and the redevelopment of East Darling Harbour , which involves a new exhibition and convention centre , now Australia's largest.

Sydney is the highest ranking city in the world for international students. More than 50, international students study at the city's universities and a further 50, study at its vocational and English language schools.

The population of Sydney in was less than 1, The median age of Sydney residents is 36 and Most immigrants to Sydney between and were British , Irish or Chinese. At the census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: [N 2] [] []. At the census, there were 2,, people living in Sydney that were born outside the country, accounting for Only The indigenous people of Sydney held totemic beliefs known as " dreamings ". Governor Lachlan Macquarie made an effort to found a culture of formal religion throughout the early settlement and ordered the construction of churches such as St Matthew's, St Luke's, St James's, and St Andrew's.

Additionally, These and other religious institutions have significantly contributed to the education and health of Sydney's residents over time, particularly through the building and management of schools and hospitals.

Crime in Sydney is low, with The Independent ranking Sydney as the fifth safest city in the world in Patrons could not enter clubs or bars in the inner-city after am, and last drinks were called at 3am. The lock-out laws were removed in January Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park is rich in Indigenous Australian heritage, containing around 1, pieces of Aboriginal rock art — the largest cluster of Indigenous sites in Australia, surpassing Kakadu , which has around 5, sites but over a much greater landmass.

The park's indigenous sites include petroglyphs , art sites, burial sites , caves , marriage areas, birthing areas, midden sites, and tool manufacturing locations, among others, which are dated to be around 5, years old. The inhabitants of the area were the Garigal people. The Australian Museum opened in Sydney in with the purpose of collecting and displaying the natural wealth of the colony. In the Museum of Sydney opened on the site of the first Government House.

It recounts the story of the city's development. The Society exists "for the encouragement of studies and investigations in science, art, literature, and philosophy". It is based in a terrace house in Darlington owned by the University of Sydney. Its collection was founded in the s by artist and art collector John Power and has been maintained by the University of Sydney. Sydney's first commercial theatre opened in and nine more had commenced performances by the late s.

The live medium lost much of its popularity to the cinema during the Great Depression before experiencing a revival after World War II. Sydney Theatre Company maintains a roster of local, classical, and international plays.

Sydney is also home to Event Cinemas ' first theatre, which opened on George St in , under its former Greater Union brand; the theatre currently operates, and is regarded as one of Australia's busiest cinema locations. It has staged over , performances and received million visitors since opening in The Sydney Conservatorium of Music is located adjacent to the Royal Botanic Garden and serves the Australian music community through education and its biannual Australian Music Examinations Board exams.

Many writers have originated in and set their work in Sydney. Others have visited the city and commented on it. The city was the headquarters for Australia's first published newspaper, the Sydney Gazette.

Filmmaking in Sydney was quite prolific until the s when spoken films were introduced and American productions gained dominance in Australian cinema. Sydney is the host of several festivals throughout the year. The city's New Year's Eve celebrations are the largest in Australia. Sydney Festival is Australia's largest arts festival. The city's two largest film festivals are Sydney Film Festival and Tropfest. Vivid Sydney is an annual outdoor exhibition of art installations, light projections, and music.

In , Sydney was ranked 13th for being the top fashion capitals in the world. The Sydney Mardi Gras has commenced each February since Sydney's Chinatown has had numerous locations since the s.

The Star is the city's casino and is situated next to Darling Harbour while the new Crown Sydney resort is in nearby Barangaroo.

The Sydney Morning Herald is Australia's oldest newspaper still in print. Now a compact form paper owned by Fairfax Media , it has been published continuously since The Bulletin was founded in Sydney in and became Australia's longest running magazine.

It closed after years of continuous publication. Each of Australia's three commercial television networks and two public broadcasters is headquartered in Sydney. Foxtel is based in North Ryde and sells subscription cable television to most parts of the urban area. Radio became a popular tool for politics, news, religion, and sport and has managed to survive despite the introduction of television and the Internet.

Sydney's earliest migrants brought with them a passion for sport but were restricted by the lack of facilities and equipment. The first organised sports were boxing, wrestling, and horse racing from in Hyde Park.

The first cricket club was formed in and matches were played within Hyde Park throughout the s and s. First played in Sydney in , rugby grew to be the city's most popular football code by the s. One-tenth of the state's population attended a New South Wales versus New Zealand rugby match in The Waratahs are a member of the Australian Hockey League.

The Swifts are competitors in the national women's netball league. Bankwest Stadium. Allianz Stadium being redeveloped. Women were first allowed to participate in recreational swimming when separate baths were opened at Woolloomooloo Bay in the s. From being illegal at the beginning of the century, sea bathing gained immense popularity during the early s and the first surf lifesaving club was established at Bondi Beach.

The City2Surf is an annual kilometre 8. In , 80, runners participated which made it the largest run of its kind in the world. Sailing races have been held on Sydney Harbour since Sydney benefitted from the construction of significant sporting infrastructure in preparation for its hosting of the Summer Olympics.

The Sydney Olympic Park accommodates athletics, aquatics, tennis, hockey, archery, baseball, cycling, equestrian, and rowing facilities. It also includes the high capacity Stadium Australia used for rugby, soccer, and Australian rules football. Sydney Football Stadium was completed in and is used for rugby and soccer matches.

Sydney Cricket Ground was opened in and is used for both cricket and Australian rules football fixtures. The Sydney International tennis tournament is held here at the beginning of each year as the warm-up for the Grand Slam in Melbourne.

Two of the most successful tennis players in history: Ken Rosewall and Todd Woodbridge were born in and live in the city. During early colonial times, the presiding Governor and his military shared absolute control over the population.

The first indications of a proper legal system emerged with the passing of a Charter of Justice in It established three new courts, including the Supreme Court , and dictated that English law was to be followed.

The existing Legislative Council became the upper house and a new body called the Legislative Assembly was formed to be the lower house. The colonial settlements elsewhere on the continent eventually seceded from New South Wales and formed their own governments. Tasmania separated in , Victoria did so in , and Queensland followed in Sydney is divided into local government areas variously known as cities, councils, municipalities or shires.

These local government areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales Government.

Sydney is the location of the secondary official residences of the Governor-General of Australia and the Prime Minister of Australia , Admiralty House and Kirribilli House respectively. This building was completed in and first served as a hospital.

The Legislative Council moved into its northern wing in and by had entirely supplanted the surgeons from their quarters. In common with other Australian capital cities, Sydney has no single local government covering its whole area. Local government areas have responsibilities such as local roads, libraries, child care, community services and waste collection, whereas the state government retains responsibility for main roads, traffic control, public transport, policing, education, and major infrastructure project.

In the past, the state has tended to resist amalgamating Sydney's more populated local government areas as merged councils could pose a threat to its governmental power. In federal politics, Sydney was initially considered as a possibility for Australia's capital city ; the newly created city of Canberra ultimately filled this role. Essential public emergency services are provided and managed by the State Government. Greater Sydney is served by:.

Education became a proper focus for the colony from the s when public schools began to form and schooling became compulsory. Five public universities maintain secondary campuses in the city for both domestic and international students: the University of Notre Dame Australia , Central Queensland University , Victoria University , University of Wollongong , and University of Newcastle. Charles Sturt University and Southern Cross University , both public universities, operate secondary campuses only designated for international students.

It offered courses in areas such as mechanical drawing, applied mathematics, steam engines, simple surgery, and English grammar. At the census, 2. The first hospital in the new colony was a collection of tents at The Rocks. Many of the convicts that survived the trip from England continued to suffer from dysentery , smallpox, scurvy , and typhoid. Healthcare facilities remained hopelessly inadequate despite the arrival of a prefabricated hospital with the Second Fleet and the construction of brand new hospitals at Parramatta, Windsor , and Liverpool in the s.

Governor Lachlan Macquarie arranged for the construction of Sydney Hospital and saw it completed in The city's first emergency department was established at Sydney Hospital in Demand for emergency medical care increased from with the introduction of an ambulance service. Healthcare gained recognition as a citizen's right in the early s and Sydney's public hospitals came under the oversight of the Government of New South Wales.

The motor vehicle, more than any other factor, has determined the pattern of Sydney's urban development since World War II. Widespread criticism over Sydney's reliance on sprawling road networks, as well as the motor vehicle, have stemmed largely from proponents of mass public transport and high density housing.

There can be up to , cars using Sydney's roads simultaneously during peak hour, leading to significant traffic congestion. Bus services today are conducted by a mixture of Government and private operators. In areas previously serviced by trams, the government State Transit Authority operates, in other areas, there are private albeit part funded by the state government operators. Integrated tickets called Opal cards operate on both government and private bus routes.

State Transit alone operated a fleet of 2, buses and serviced over million passengers during In total, nearly million boardings were recorded across the bus network [] NightRide is a nightly bus service that operate between midnight and 5am, also replacing trains for most of this period. Sydney once had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire after London. The internal combustion engine made buses more flexible than trams and consequently more popular, leading to the progressive closure of the tram network with the final tram operating in It was extended to Lilyfield in and then Dulwich Hill in Sydney Trains is the suburban rail service.

Its tracks form part of the New South Wales railway network. It serves stations across the city and had an annual ridership of million passenger journeys in — The main station is the Central railway station in the southern part of the CBD. In the s and s, the railway reached areas that are now outer suburbs of Sydney. Sydney Metro , a driverless rapid transit system separate from the suburban commuter network, commenced operation in May and will be extended into the city and down southwest by and through the inner west to Parramatta by A line to serve the greater west is planned for and will include a station for the second international airport.

At the time the Sydney Harbour Bridge opened in , the city's ferry service was the largest in the world. Sydney Airport , officially "Sydney Kingsford-Smith Airport", is located in the inner southern suburb of Mascot with two of the runways going into Botany Bay. It services 46 international and 23 domestic destinations. Bankstown is also the fourth busiest airport in Australia by the number of aircraft movements.

Cruise ship terminals are located at Sydney Cove and White Bay. As climate change , greenhouse gas emissions and pollution have become a major issue for Australia, Sydney has in the past been criticised for its lack of focus on reducing pollution, cutting back on emissions and maintaining water quality.

The development led to the release of the Metropolitan Air Quality Scheme MAQS , which led to a broader understanding of the causation of pollution in Sydney, allowing the government to form appropriate responses to the pollution. The air quality was 11 times the hazardous level in some days, [] [] even making it worse than New Delhi 's, [] where it was also compared to "smoking 32 cigarettes" by Associate Professor Brian Oliver, a respiratory diseases scientist at the University of Technology Sydney.

Despite its high ranking for an Australian city, Sydney has a low level of mass-transit services, with a historically low-density layout and significant urban sprawl , thus increasing the likelihood of car dependency. The City of Sydney became the first council in Australia to achieve formal certification as carbon-neutral in The city also has an " urban forest growth strategy", in which it aims to regular increase the tree coverage in the city by frequently planting trees with strong leaf density and vegetation to provide cleaner air and create moisture during hot weather, thus lowering city temperatures.

The One Central Park development, completed in , is an example of this implementation and design. Obtaining sufficient fresh water was difficult during early colonial times. A catchment called the Tank Stream sourced water from what is now the CBD but was little more than an open sewer by the end of the s.

The two distributors which maintain Sydney's electricity infrastructure are Ausgrid and Endeavour Energy. National and ACT Canberra. NSW Sydney. NT Darwin.

QLD Brisbane. SA Adelaide. TAS Hobart. VIC Melbourne. WA Perth. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 March This article is about the Australian metropolis. For the local government area, see City of Sydney. For other uses, see Sydney disambiguation. Capital of New South Wales and most populous city in Australia.

City in New South Wales, Australia. Main articles: History of Sydney and Timeline of Sydney. Main article: Geography of Sydney. Further information: Ecology of Sydney. Main article: Climate of Sydney. Climate data for Sydney Observatory Hill — averages, —present extremes.

See also: Regions of Sydney. Further information: Northern Sydney. Further information: Greater Western Sydney. Main article: Economy of Sydney. Main article: Tourism in Sydney. Main article: Demographics of Sydney. Main article: Crime in Sydney. Power Tools Shelving. Tile Adhesives Tile Grout. Black Brown Cream Grey White.

View all Tiles. View all Kitchen Showroom. Madison White Madison Grey. Ohio Cream. Dakota White. View all Ready to fit Kitchens. Offers Offers. View all Offers. Ideas Flooring Trends.

Flooring Buying Guide. Ideas Tile Trends. Tiles Buying Guide. View all Home Maintenance. Buying Guides Smart Home. View all Home Security. View all Latest Offers. View all Wickes Essentials. View all Top Rated By You. View all Online Exclusives. My Account. Save Comment 33 Like Hard flooring is sought after for open-plan living areas for good reason — it adds a sense of spaciousness and is a snap to clean.

The flooring you choose for your kitchen, living and dining area will be a choice you have to live with for many years to come, however, so be sure to weigh up the positives and negatives of each option before settling on a decision, and look outside the square. Search local carpet and flooring suppliers. Timber floorboards The appeal of timber floors is impossible to deny. Whether laid in a herringbone pattern like this one, or just in a row, timber floors have a warm glow that can make a home look spacious and homey.

Although hardwood floors are expensive, they can also be relied on to last. They can withstand multiple sandings and stainings before starting to deteriorate — in about years! The timber is starting to crack and come apart at the seams — literally — as a result. All I can do is oil them to keep the timber nourished, but the floorboards will one day have to be replaced. Timber can be stained in whatever colour you like and there are various species and widths from which to choose.

Blackbutt is one of the hardest but take care with other species. High-heeled shoes and dog claws can quickly scratch and dent soft wooden floors. PROS: This material is warm and inviting and can be restored to former glory by sanding refinishing every six or seven years. It also suits plenty of home styles.

CONS: Softer timbers can dent and scratch, and can be noisy for anyone accommodating the floor underneath. It can crack, gap or cup. It has to be installed on joists or sub-floors, rather than directly on concrete slab. Engineered timber floorboards Engineered timber floorboards are a less expensive option than regular floorboards that can look just as beautiful, but only the top layer is timber.

The remaining width is a filler known as substrate. Architect Christopher Megowan says engineered timber that uses American and European oaks are becoming popular, and have come a long way in recent years. The real benefit of a 6mm layer is that you can do three sandings, meaning your floors are going to look great for about 30 years. Engineered timber is more stable than hardwood, which expands and contracts with temperature and moisture levels, but only when the substrate is multi-layered ply or similar.

If you buy engineered timber layered on solid pine, your floors will face the same challenges as with solid timber — they can crack, cup and gap. TIP: Although floating floorboards are available, Bagnato prefers floorboards that are glued and nailed to the floor.



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