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I have drawn plans for many of the woodworking projects on this website. Each of these plans has an accompanying article showing the actual construction of the project. Most of these woodworking plans were drawn in Sketchup, a free 3D CAD program. For most plans, the SketchUp model is included, so you can check out different views of the projects and parts. Free plans. Create with confidence with DIY project ideas and free woodworking plans. Build furniture and other projects with ease, our step by step instructions will show you how.  We proudly stand behind all of our products. We are proud of the quality of our products, and we stand behind them %. If for any reason you are not satisfied with the merchandise you ordered, just return it within 90 days to receive a refund in the manner of original payment for merchandise only. Manufacturer guarantees/warranties for power tools, CNC and laser products will supersede the Rockler Guarantee if these items are damaged or defective. For these items, please call the store where you purchased them or our customer service department at so we can assist you. B. 3 Main Types of Front Doors. C. Front Door Configurations and Anatomy Chart. D. Styles.  This brown front door is fitted with wrought iron handle and small mirrored insets situated next to the white framed window that’s covered in roller blinds. Bright yellow siding adds a cheerful tone to the black front door that’s complemented by a sleek wall sconce and red mailbox. It is wrapped in a black and white staircase with a dark wood plank landing. A not so ordinary front door in blue with a glossy finish.  Side glass panels flank a dark wood door that’s fixed against the stone brick walls. It is accompanied by a pair of potted plants and a black rug over a concrete floor. Various plants create a serene and fresh ambiance in this house with a mirrored front door framed in black aluminum. In Japan, the Kyoto Electric railroad was the first tram system, starting operation in The finish and manufacturing method of this ink bottle is also further elaborated on in the box below. Countries with tram networks. Do you have to abide by Door Owners Association guidelines or want to make a bold wood work designs for main door 64 on a commercial wirk The Whittemore's Polish bottle to the right two views is a cylindrical, late mouth-blown example that dates from the to era. There were certainly bulk ink bottles which were under 5" in height - like this 3. The larger bottle is embossed inside of an indented panel plate mold?

Skrip ink was first produced by the company in and was particularly suited for use in fountain pens; it is still in production today. The Owens-Illinois Glass Co. The Owens-Illinois San Francisco plant closed in with the mold likely transferred to some other Owens-Illinois plant and used there until at least and probably later Lockhart pers.

This also explains the observation that only the embossed plant code - which appears to have been purposefully though not completely obliterated - is not sharply defined on the base. Click on the following link for a base view of this bottle showing the embossing and Owens Automatic Bottle Machine induced suction scar not really visible unless enlarged. This style of ink bottle was called a "round ink," "cylinder ink," "round mucilage" the shape was also used for glue , and likely other terms Illinois Glass Co.

The finish and manufacturing method of this ink bottle is also further elaborated on in the box below. Machine-made ink bottles: A vertical side mold seam anomaly discussion. There are some interesting mold related features on the last two machine-made cylindrical ink bottles discussed above the medium green glass ink and the Sheaffers ink bottle that are very often observed on machine-made ink bottles produced during the first half of the 20th century.

Similar features are also occasionally encountered on some relatively wide mouth bottles used for other products, like shoe polish. Note: This discussion is also pertinent to some of the other noted machine-made ink bottles discussed further down the page. The image to the right is a close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish of the noted Sheaffers ink bottle click to enlarge for more detail.

The image shows the vertical side mold seam ending on the outside edge of the one part bead finish at a "ring" mold the upper portion of a parison or "blank" mold induced horizontal mold seam that encircles the extreme outer edge of the finish.

The side mold seam does not extend onto the top surface of the finish, i. These features are pointed out - and much more readable - on the larger hyperlinked image; click to view. The image to the left is a close-up of the medium green, machine-made ink bottle also discussed earlier. Click on the image to view a larger and much more readable version with the various features pointed out. The termination of the side mold seam within Sheaffers ink or at the base of green ink the finish - though well short of the finish rim - on both bottles make it appear upon casual glance that these are mouth-blown bottles having either an improved tooled finish Sheaffers or an applied finish green ink.

However, both bottles are most certainly machine-made. There is also no neck ring mold seam immediately below the finish like found on most Owens machine produced bottles and on a majority of all machine-made bottles.

Instead, there is a mold seam located near the base of the neck indicating that the neck ring mold portion of the parison mold produced the finish, neck, and a portion of the shoulder.

This is also pointed out on the image; click to enlarge. The earlier green glass ink bottle is also certainly machine-made, most likely on an early semi-automatic , press-and-blow machine based on its crudeness and lack of a suction scar. A likely machine used for making this ink bottle was the "Blue Machine. Instead, there is distinct horizontal mold seam protruding slightly on the outside edge of the lower finish and another vague mold seam encircling the bottle located on the shoulder near the base of the neck.

This indicates that the neck ring mold portion of the parison mold produced the finish, neck, and a small portion of the shoulder. These are all pointed out on the image above; click to enlarge. Both these described machine-made ink bottles exhibit no sign of the concentric, horizontal finishing 0r lipping tool induced marks that would be present on a mouth-blown finish which was hand tooled to shape.. A somewhat analogous phenomenon is noted on many press-and-blown, machine-made milk bottles produced during the first half of the 20th century.

Other images of cylindrical ink bottles are available by clicking on the following links:. This is also a very large group of bottles - undoubtedly numbering in the many thousands of different shapes and variations.

Square ink bottles first appeared in any quantities around the time of the American Civil War, after cylindrical inks were well established; square pontiled ink bottles are very unusual. Note: Square ink wells appeared earlier with some of the first American made examples [ pattern molded ] reportedly produced by the Pitkin Glass Works East Hartford, CN. Later ink bottles late 19th century through most of the 20th were commonly made with square bodies, rivaling cylindrical shapes in popularity.

Rectangular pontiled ink bottles are a bit more common than square pontiled ones though still unusual. Conversely to square ink bottles, rectangular inks largely disappeared in the early s in American bottle makers catalogs; rectangular machine-made ink bottles are uncommon Illinois Glass Co.

In England, rectangular "boat" inks were still commonly made until at least WW1 covered below. In addition, virtually identical bottles although in amber glass are known that are embossed on the "roof" with S.

Covill Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: base view ; view of the other two sides of the bottle. There were an assortment of house ink bottles made during the 19th century making them a very esthetic addition to ones desk and very likely increasing the sales of the users ink vendor of such bottles Covill The carmine style also made the leap onto automatic machines with a very similar look and name being made until at least the s Fairmount Glass Co.

Although the style was called a "carmine" by bottle makers, they were also used for other ink colors Covill Back to the pictured bottle This bottle has a tooled patent style finish, was blown in a cup-base mold, is 2" 5. Given the company begin date noted, the evidence except for a lack of air venting points towards a likely manufacturing range of and Click base view to see the cup-base mold produced base.

An illustration of the "carmine" style ink bottle being offered by the Illinois Glass Co. An example of a very large 10 oz. The colorless faintly manganese dioxide induced "pink" ink bottle pictured to the left is embossed on three sides with C. This bottle which is commonly encountered as an unembossed bottle also is 2.

Click on the following links for more images of this bottle: base view ; the other two sides of this bottle. As noted in the introduction to this section, stationary shops aka "stationers" were common purveyors of bottled ink.

The commonly encountered ink bottle pictured to the right is a machine-made square ink that is fairly decorative in design. It also has embossing on three of the body sides: 2 OZ. Click base view to see such showing the noted embossing. This bottle has some manufacturing similarities to the two machine-made cylindrical ink bottles discussed in the box above.

Specifically, it has a vertical side mold seam that ends at a horizontal seam that encircles the outside of the bead type lip as well as a horizontal mold seam encircling the bottle shoulder where the lower ring below the neck base meets the upper edge of the shoulder these are pointed out in the larger image one gets by clicking on the image to the right.

This indicates the unusual machine-mold conformation that formed the finish, neck, and upper shoulder in the ring parison mold, as discussed above. This bottle most likely dates from between and Click Sanford's Ink advertisement to see such which shows a very similar ink bottle in one of that companies ads. For more information, see the company's history page at this link: Sanford history.

Various types of square, machine-made ink bottle similar to this with one or two rings at the base of the neck though certainly not all embossed like this example were commonly produced from the s to the s although later ones were also made with external screw threads Illinois Glass Co.

For scores of images of Sanford's ink bottles visit the Sanford's Ink bottles page of the website Ink Bottles. The cobalt blue, square ink bottle pictured to the left is also a machine-made example Click on the following links to see more images of this bottle: base view ; straight on view of one side ; close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish. Multi-sided more than four sides : This a large and varied class of ink bottles bound together by having more than four flattened body sides or panels.

Typically the body panel conformations are either "conical" picture to the left; bodies narrowing dramatically from the heel to the shoulder or "vertical" examples further below; bodies roughly equal in diameter at the heel and shoulder. Once again, there are hundreds of not thousands of different and often subtle variations of multi-sided ink bottle theme Covill ; Faulkner with only a few of the more common shapes covered here.

Conical bodies : Probably the most commonly encountered members of this group - particularly from historic sites dating before - are the "umbrella" ink bottles image above left. The group pictured above are typical having eight equal sides - the most common configuration - though examples with 6, 10, 12, and 16 sixteen sides have also been recorded Covill ; Faulkner This is an interesting group in that they all date from the same time none are pontiled scarred but were finished in three different fashions: the two on the left have rolled finishes , the dark amber in the back has a cracked-off or burst-off finish , and the aqua example to the far right has an applied finish.

By the late s they were an insignificant minority of ink bottles produced empirical observations. The author has never observed a machine-made umbrella ink nor found any reference to examples except some modern reproductions some of which are marked JAPAN on the base and the style is thought to have disappeared prior to the introduction of bottle machines capable of produced narrow neck bottles Covill The typical height for most umbrella inks is around 2.

Umbrella inks were made in a myriad of glass colors - essentially any color that a bottle was blown it during the 19th century. Aqua is by far the most commonly used color, though the spectrum is very wide as indicated by the image at this link - umbrella ink color variety - which shows examples ranging from colorless to various shades of amber and green to cobalt blue. The umbrella ink pictured to the right is an early American example dating from the s or early s.

It was most likely made by a New England glass house, although it could also have been produced by a Pennsylvania, New Jersey, or New York maker. It is 2. It has a straight finish that was likely cracked off from the blowpipe then re-heated and tooled a bit to make a smoother finish. Click on the following links to see more images of this ink bottle: base view which shows the "key" mold base seam squared notch in the vicinity of the pontil scar ; close-up of the upper shoulder, neck and finish showing more clearly the vague ridge that indicates the point where the top of the mold ended.

The aqua umbrella ink pictured to the left is a much later version dating most likely from the s though could be from the very first years of the 20th century. This dating estimate is based in part on the context it was found as well as some manufacturing related diagnostic features, i. This example also has some light patination to the surface of the glass from being buried for over years.

Click on base view to see the base of this bottle which has the absence of mold seams typical of cup-base mold produced bottles. This example also has part of the original cork closure and some dried contents visible - and what appears to be dried black ink. The following multi-sided ink bottles have vertical body sides instead of the inwardly tapering towards the shoulder bodies of the umbrella inks discussed above.

Vertical bodies : The other major grouping of multi-sided inks are those with more or less vertical sides, where the diameter of of the base and the shoulder are about the same.

This style was most popular during the midth century, i. Some multi-sided, vertical body ink bottles were also made by automatic bottle machines but most inks of that era are cylindrical or 4-sided square and rectangular.

Photo courtesy of American Glass Auctions. The octagonal ink bottles pictured to the left are English in origin. These bottles were burst-off from the blowpipe and received no additional finishing which resulted in the very crude and sharp finish visible in the image click to enlarge. This method of "finishing" a bottle was common with cheap, mouth-blown, utilitarian bottles made in England in the late s to as late as Boow Click labeled English ink to view an identical example from the same era around with the original label indicating its use by an English ink producer for rubber stamp ink.

These bottles also have a vague makers mark on the base not visible in image that resembles the goal posts on a football field. This mark is certainly one used by a yet unknown English glass company as bases with this mark are documented to have been found in the Ravensbourne River at Deptford, Wiltshire, England Toulouse Although English-made, these type bottles are commonly encountered in North America and are one of most typical bottles to be found with a burst-off finish.

Other images of multi-sided more than four sides ink bottles are available by clicking on the following links:. Other shapes : There were, of course, many other types and shapes of ink bottles. Distinctive or attractive packaging seemed to have been a common theme in the production of ink bottles, driven by customer demand and glass company ingenuity.

Some commonly encountered or interesting types will be covered briefly in this section. Period glass companies called this general shape the "fountain," "monitor" after the Civil War ship , or "fluted fountain" for those with a faceted lower side like the examples pictured above Whitall Tatum ; Robert Alther ; Freeman ; Covill I'll just call them igloo inks here. Igloo inks were very popular and extensively used for at least 35 to 40 years - through into the early s - particularly in schools.

Since this distinctive style is unknown with either pontil scars or as machine-made bottles, this supports the noted date range well Covill ; empirical observations.

The two ink bottles pictured above and again to the right are typical - and the most commonly encountered - examples of igloo ink bottles empirical observations. This firm allegedly first patented the shape on October 31st, ; the earliest examples have that patent date - but not number - embossed on the domed portion of the body.

The pictured bottles are around 1. Both examples pictured were blown in cup-base molds and lack evidence of mold air venting which is a common feature of , though they were each finished differently. The example on the right above, which is probably the earliest of the two, has a rough burst -off finish which received only the slightest amount of rim grinding to remove some of the sharp edges. The other example left has a standard tooled finish.

Other images of "other shapes" of ink bottles are available by clicking on the following links:. A few ink bottle specific manufacturing related diagnostic features and dating trends have been noted by the author and are discussed as follows:. There were certainly bulk ink bottles which were under 5" in height - like this 3.

One other consideration is that bulk ink bottles tend to have proportionally narrower bores than ink bottles since they were not generally intended to be used to directly fill fountain pens or dip ones quill into empirical observations.

Bulk inks were generally made in sizes near one-half pint, pint and quart although other sizes within this range are not uncommon. There are also certainly bulk inks smaller than 4 ozs. Bulk ink bottles were used to fill inkwells and to some degree empty ink bottles call them "economy" ink wells.

These bottles - especially those without a pouring spout of some type image to the right and above left or without embossing indicating the use by an ink producer or seller - are often referred to as "utility" bottles since they could have been used for a wide array of non-carbonated liquid products. The only way to tell if a "utility" bottle was used for ink is if the bottle is still labeled indicating such use, has ink residue inside not uncommonly seen , or it has a pouring spout which is a strongly indicative diagnostic feature of a bulk ink Covill ; empirical observations.

The general class of u tility bottles Wood Work For Pooja Room 50 are covered later Wood Work In Hall For Tv 02 on this page. For simplicity, bulk inks are divided into two subsets here - cylindrical and non-cylindrical. The blue-green bulk ink pictured to the right is discussed below. As noted in other sections of this website, cylindrical bodies are inherently stronger than other body shapes all other things being equal, e. The subjective speculation of this author as to why the majority were cylindrical may well have revolved around the potential nasty mess one would have if a bottle of ink broke versus other less messy substances.

All are approximately 7. These bottles display the typical conformation of bulk inks made during the last half of the 19th century like the blue-green and cobalt blue examples discussed below. The two small approx.

Both are somewhat generic utility type bottles and neither has a pour spout. So without a label identifying the actual use one can never know for sure although these type bottles were used very commonly for ink.

Click on early, pontiled utility bottle with an ink label to see a very similar bottle clearly used for ink. Click on the following links to see more images of the two illustrated bottles: base view showing the blow-pipe pontil scars and two-piece "hinge mold" production as evidenced by the mold seam equally dissecting the base not totally visible in the linked image ; close-up of the shoulder, neck and finishes showing the short, squatty mineral type applied finishes without pour spouts.

Both these bottles are typical of the utilitarian items produced by many of the earlier New England and Midwestern glass houses during the s to s period. Also see Utility Bottles below. The small 4. This particular bottle dates from the s or s, was blown in a true two-piece "keyed" hinge mold , has a blowpipe type pontil scar and no evidence of mold air venting.

Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: base view showing the blowpipe style pontil scar over a true two-piece mold seam aka "hinge mold" ; close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish showing the very thin and delicate flared finish which was formed by re-heating and tooling with some simple tool like a jack the glass remaining after blowpipe removal.

The small 3. This small bottle was blown in a three-piece mold lacking any evidence of mold air venting and was found in a context indicating manufacture in the s. These type small utility bottles from the s to early s were commonly made in either two-piece cup-base molds or in a three-piece mold like this example. Click close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish to view the well formed though delicate pour spout; this image also shows the very distinct three-piece mold shoulder and neck seams.

This bottle certainly could have been used for medicines of some type, with the pour spout making dosing easier. However, the big majority of mouth-blown bottles with formed pour spouts were used for ink so it is most likely that was the use of this small bottle also and other ink bottles were found in the same context.

The brilliant medium blue-green bulk ink bottle pictured to the left dates from the to era based on its applied finish, post-bottom mold production, lack of mold air venting, and the context it was found.

This example is 8. It was common during the 19th century and into at least the first third of the 20th century, for bulk ink bottles to be made with bright, eye attracting colored glass; likely for marketing purposes. Click on the following links to see more views of this bottle: close-up of the applied, pour spout finish showing the pour spout which was shaped by some type of glassmakers tool also shown earlier in this section above ; base view showing the slightly indented post-bottom base conformation.

The tall 8. It has an applied two-part finish that is a cross between the "mineral" the short, sharp lower part and "double ring" types the taller, distinctly rounded upper part , was blown in a two-piece post-bottom mold, lacks evidence of mold air venting, and dates most likely from the late s based on the context it was found in.

Click on the following links to see more images of this bottle: base view post-bottom mold production though the seams are not easily visible in the image ; close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish showing the crudely applied finish. More information on this closure type is found at this link: club sauce type closure. Another general form seen in early to midth century machine-made bulk ink bottles is the amber bottle pictured to the left and in the adjacent illustration.

It has a slightly bulging shoulder and heel and is of a shape used by several ink manufacturers during the noted ear. This particular bottle is 6" tall and 2.

The bottle was sealed with a modified crown cap closure as shown in the illustration. Click on the following links to see more images of this bottle: base view faintly showing the diamond makers mark indicating probable production by the Illinois Glass Co.

Alton, IL. Toulouse ; close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish showing the standard crown cap accepting finish. Other shapes non-cylindrical : The most common non-cylindrical shape for bulk ink bottles are those with vertical, equal-sided paneled bodies; 6, 8 and 12 sides being most observed. A couple examples follow though there are likely hundreds of other examples produced during the period covered by this website.

Photo courtesy of Glass Works Auctions. Apollos W. Most of these bottles are pontil scarred, lack mold air venting, were blown in a true two-piece hinge mold, and have a distinctive flared collared ring finish like the illustrated bottle.

A commonly seen bulk ink bottle from the late s to early s are the very decorative "cathedral" style bottles pictured to the left. These bottles were produced in three different bulk sizes - quart 9.

All the bottles are machine-made and utilized a rubber cork closure with a screw cap pour spout on top click on the two bottle image to see the closures. For more images of this bottle style, click on the following links: view of three sizes of these gothic or cathedral style ink bottles; view of the bases of the three sizes. These bottles were sometime produced in a lighter sapphire blue two bottle image shows color comparison and rarely in colorless glass Faulkner There are no significant bottle type specific, manufacturing related diagnostic features or dating trends that have been noted by the author.

As noted at the top of this section on ink bottles, the difference between an "ink bottle" and an "inkwell" is hard to define since they are both small bottles used as "containers for ink" from which a quill or fountain pen was directly filled or dipped Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary Although both were used in a similar fashion - to directly fill a quill or pen - according to Munsey an " In the end, the line is blurred between the two; both are covered as separate bottle "types" on this page.

The first inkstand an inkwell was part of an inkstand which also included writing instruments and a sand shaker for drying was patented in the U. Quincy of Boston, Massachusetts Faulkner Inkwells began fading in popularity by the early twentieth century due to the rise of fountain pens - which were filled directly from the bottle - and later, ballpoint pens which dominated by the midth century Faulkner ; Wikipedia.

Inkwells were produced in a dizzying array of designs and materials including wood, precious metals, pewter and other more common metals, ceramics, a myriad of minerals, and many other substances Even with "just" glass as the forming material the variety of shapes, colors, and types is staggering.

For those interested in the subject, both Covill's and the Faulkner's books provide a bit more glimpse into more variety than can or should be addressed on this site as inkwells are really a specialty bottle type and outside this websites goals. However, a few examples of commonly encountered inkwells will be addressed - examples that are more "bottle-like" and more closely follow the dating rules outlined on this website than not.

A straight-on side view of the bottle is available by clicking HERE. Pattern molding was a process of forming a basic design pattern typically ribs on an expanding gob of glass via a dip mold with an engraved design.

The image to the above right is a close-up view of the base of this inkwell showing the blowpipe pontil scar on the base of this inkwell. It also shows the ribbing pattern continuation from the body to the base typical of a pattern molded bottle. It should be noted that some "Pitkin" style inkwells were also made by other regional glasshouses like those in Keene, NH. This ink was blown in a three-piece leaf mold, has a blow-pipe pontil scar on the base, is 1.

Click base view to view the base which shows the pontil scar encircling a small indentation in the base center. The linked image also shows the extensive wear present on the high point edge of the base; a function of these inkwells being used for decades as well as sitting on a shelf for another century or more as these items were rarely discarded unless broken.

This "bottle-like" category of inkwells were produced by several New England glasshouses including the noted Coventry, CT. The very small 1. Note: This bottle is covered here due to the morphological similarity to the geometric inkwells discussed above. In any event, this ink bottle was likely produced without the aid of a mold i.

Click on base view to see the noted pontil scar. It has a cheap utilitarian look to it compared to the geometric inkwell shown above though has the same basic configuration. It could well have been and probably was sold corked and containing ink; whether it was reused as an inkwell can't be determined.

It does appear to have some dark ink residue forming a rough ring around the insides, although this could also be related to its residence in the earth for over years. Unlike most inkwells that were sold empty and were much more ornate, this particular bottle is of a utilitarian nature and does conform to the dating guidelines found on this website, i.

The cobalt blue inkwell pictured to the left is what is known as a "tea kettle," "turtle," or "fountain" inkwell. It dates from the mid to late 19th century.

These type inkwells usually had burst-off or cracked-off finishes which were variably ground down. The finish was usually covered by a hinged, typically brass, ring and cap cap missing on the illustrated example that sealed the bottle when not being used to inhibit evaporation.

Teakettle inks come in a wide variety of colors, glass types, and other materials e. The style seems to have been first made during the first quarter of the 19th century Covill ; Faulkner but was most popular from the mids until around or so since pontiled examples are unusual empirical observations. The tea kettle inkwell or ink bottle pictured to the right is another ink that crosses the line between being an inkwell or simple ink bottle.

Like the aqua center hole ink bottle above this bottle also has a cheaper, utilitarian look to it compared to the cobalt blue teak kettle ink bottle above, which certainly was intended for indefinite use. Of course, this bottle could have been reused after the initial purchase with ink. It has a tooled straight finish which accepted a cork closure, an eleven sided body, and has no evidence of mold air venting.

It was apparently blown in a true, though asymmetrical, two-piece mold where one portion of the mold formed the base, heel and underside of the neck with the other portion forming the entire body and upper portion of the neck.

Below the patent date is a marking which appears to be three interlinking circles with some faint letters in each circle which is either an unknown bottle makers marking or is related to the company that used the bottle. To view the actual design patent click: Design Patent 11, The patent notes that this was called a "Fountain-Bottle" and specifically patented for the spout angle and bulge at the base of the spout, the pen rests on the top of the body, and feet bumps on the base see base image - or all those features Sanding Machine For Wood Doors Wallet in combination.

The patent was granted to one Michael H. Hagerty of New York, NY. A search of the few references on ink bottles listed the bottle but nothing about what company used the bottle, what the noted marking on the base may mean, nor anything about Mr. Covill did note a variant of this bottle that has PAT. FOR on the base indicating manufacture between April 9, , when the patent application was filed, and July 13, when the patent was granted!

Since these bottles are fairly scarce in the authors experience, they were probably only made for a few years in the early to mids. The illustrated bottles, however, were picked specifically because they are types that do follow the dating rules well. Pontil scarred ink bottles generally were made during or before the Civil War, whereas pontiled inkwells being more of a specialty bottle , were occasionally made later in the 19th century empirical observations.

Since inkwells were not made much after the advent of bottle making machines, machine-made inkwells are unusual but may be encountered now and then.

As portrayed by the image of an early 19th century pewter inkwell to the left, a lot of late 18th to early 20th century inkwells were not bottles or even made of glass.

As noted earlier, inkwells were produced in a dizzying array of designs and materials including wood, precious metals, pewter and other more common metals, ceramics, a myriad of minerals, and many other substances. However, that can be the subject of another website For more information on the fascinating world of glass ink bottles and inkwells, see the two primary published references used for this section - William Covill's "Ink Bottles and Inkwells" and Ed and Lucy Faulkner's "Inks - Years of Bottles and Companies.

Return to the top of this page. Horses hooves were reportedly a well know component of glue in the past at least according to my parents while growing up! According to online dictionaries, today the term glue seems to be general term used for adhesives including mucilage. In any event, the terms "glue" and "mucilage" are the most commonly seen either embossed or labeled on historic bottles within the time frame covered by this website Covill ; Faulkner What the contained products were specifically made from is somewhat irrelevant to this discussion of historic mucilage and glue bottles.

Suffice to say that the products were both organic in origin versus the widely used synthetic adhesives today. Mucilage was often packaged in bottles that were the same as those used for ink - in particular, the cone ink style - at least in part, because both products were often made by the same companies Faulkner An example of this is the "classic" cone ink bottle labeled for mucilage found at this link: cone "ink" labeled for mucilage.

The linked bottle likely dates from the s or s. No history is known on the Henry Hoffman Co. Located at the following link is another late 19th century cone ink style bottle clearly labeled as mucilage: another cone "ink" labeled for mucilage. No history was found for that particular bottle either.

The best that one can say in regards to the past use of now non-labeled cone style ink bottles like those found on historic sites is that they were primarily used for ink and often are found with ink residue inside with a significant use also for mucilage and a substance that would likely dissolve more readily than ink. Another typical ink bottle style often used for mucilage were the cylindrical, vertical body ink bottles covered earlier on this page Covill It is represented by the bottles illustrated above and below left.

As one can see from the images, these bottles are a bit like the cone ink style, with the horizontal ridge on the shoulder, conical body and short neck, but also a bit like an umbrella ink with the multi-paneled body sides. Typically, this mucilage style has a taller body and overall height either the typical cone or umbrella inks and a much more pronounced ridge or bulge at the shoulder than the cone ink.

Compare images of both on this page to see the difference. This style also has a bit wider bore or mouth to facilitate the use of the less liquid product than ink, often with some applicator see patent below. Click on Illinois Glass Co. Style" 3 oz. The patent available at the following link - mucilage applicator patent from - includes a line drawing of a typical midth century mucilage bottle of this style.

Although the patent is not for the bottle itself - by that time a traditional style bottle that was not likely even patentable - it clearly shows a multi-paneled bottle with a distinctly humped shoulder similar to the ones illustrated. This easily identifiable style was used from at least the early to mids based on pontil scarred examples being observed occasionally but not commonly until the end of the mouth-blown bottle era in the mid to late s.

The classically shaped, conical multi-sided mucilage bottle in the upper left corner of this section base view above right is a relatively early example dating from just before or during the American Civil War based on manufacturing based diagnostic characteristics i. It has a rolled or folded finish , was blown in a post-base mold, and has a combination style pontil scar exhibiting obvious iron residue.

The base view shows the somewhat unusual combination pontil scar on the base of this bottle. The label notes it is from New York though no company is listed; click close-up of the label to see such. This mucilage was actually made by the S. Stafford Ink Co. Samuel Stafford began making ink in but not under his own name until , giving a "begin" date for these bottles of that year Faulkner These bottles date from the late s into the early 20th century all seen by this author were mouth-blown although the company lasted until at least the middle of the 20th century Faulkner Click on the following links for more images of this bottle: base view showing what is likely a cup-base mold conformation; close-up of the cracked-off and lightly tooled "straight finish" which was the most commonly used finish on this common style of mucilage bottle.

Another frequently encountered glue bottle style - although much less commonly than the type discussed above - is pictured below right. That author covered the style in his chapter entitled "Fountain Inkwells Misc. The most commonly encountered examples are like the illustrated bottle.

Morgan was later granted another patent June 18th for an "Improvement in Inkstands" - a closure that fit this style bottle which was now being called an inkstand. This patent can be viewed at the following link: Patent , This later patent illustration shows what appears to be a bottle very similar to the bottle with the "improved" cover which is much different than the handled cap and brush closure shown in the patent.

The patent was apparently bottles of this style used for ink instead of mucilage. In any event, these interestingly shaped bottles were blown in a cup-base mold, have a ground rim finish, and apparently were only made in colorless glass. Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: base view showing the shape of the bottle and the patent date; finish view showing a close-up of the ground rim.

An important advantage of standard gauge is that standard railway maintenance equipment can be used on it, rather than custom-built machinery. Using standard gauge also allows light rail vehicles to be delivered and relocated conveniently using freight railways and locomotives. Another factor favoring standard gauge is that low-floor vehicles are becoming popular, and there is generally insufficient space for wheelchairs to move between the wheels in a narrow gauge layout.

Standard gauge also enables — at least in theory — a larger choice of manufacturers and thus lower procurement costs for new vehicles. However, other factors such as electrification or loading gauge for which there is more variation may require costly custom built units regardless. Tram stops may be similar to bus stops in design and use, particularly in street-running sections, where in some cases other vehicles are legally required to stop clear of the tram doors.

Some stops may resemble to railway platforms , particularly in private right-of-way sections and where trams are boarded at standard railway platform height , as opposed to using steps at the doorway or low-floor trams.

Approximately 5, new trams are manufactured each year. As of February , 4, new trams were on order from their makers, with options being open for a further 1, Trams are in a period of growth, with about tram systems operating around the world, 10 or so new systems being opened each year, and many being gradually extended.

In the past 20 years their numbers have been augmented by modern tramway or light rail systems in cities that had discarded this form of transport.

There have also been some new tram systems in cities that never previously had them. Tramways with tramcars British English or street railways with streetcars North American English were common throughout the industrialised world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries but they had disappeared from most British, Canadian, French and US cities by the midth century.

By contrast, trams in parts of continental Europe continued to be used by many cities, although there were contractions in some countries, including the Netherlands. Since trams have returned to favour in many places, partly because their tendency to dominate the roadway, formerly seen as a disadvantage, is now considered to be a merit since it raises the visibility of public transport encouraging car users to change their mode of travel , and enables streets to be reconfigured to give more space to pedestrians, making cites more pleasant places to live.

In Milan, Italy, the old " Ventotto " trams are considered by its inhabitants a "symbol" of the city. The same can be said of trams in Melbourne in general, but particularly the iconic W class.

The Toronto streetcar system had similarly become an iconic symbol of the city, operating the largest network in the Americas as well as the only large-scale tram system in Canada not including light rail systems, or heritage lines. Historically, the Paris Tram System was, at its peak, the world's largest system, with 1, km mi of track in [ citation needed ] according to other sources, ca. However it was completely closed in The third largest was Chicago, with over km mi of track, [] but it was all converted to trolleybus and bus services by 21 June Before its decline, the BVG in Berlin operated a very large network with km mi of route.

Before its system started to be converted to trolleybus and later bus services in the s last tramway closed 6 July , the first-generation London network had km mi of route in The final line, the Santa teresa route was closed in Petersburg with km mi , USSR, and was included as such in the Guinness World Records ; [ citation needed ] however Saint Petersburg's tram system has declined in size since the fall of the Soviet Union.

Vienna in had km mi , before the expansion of bus services and the opening of a subway Substituting subway services for tram routes continues. As from , the Melbourne system currently recognised as the world's largest took over Sydney's title as the largest network in Australia.

In many European cities, much tramway infrastructure was lost in the midth century, though not always on the same scale as in other parts of the world such as North America.

Most of Central and Eastern Europe retained the majority of its tramway systems and it is here that the largest and busiest tram systems in the world are found. Whereas most systems and vehicles in the tram sector are found in Central and Eastern Europe, in the s and s, tram systems were shut down in many places in Western Europe, however urban transportation has been experiencing a sustained long running revival since the s.

Many European cities are rehabilitating, upgrading, expanding and reconstructing their old tramway lines and building new tramway lines. In North America, these vehicles are called "streetcars" or "trolleys" ; the term tram is more likely to be understood as an aerial tramway or a people-mover.

Streetcar systems were developed in late 19th to early 20th centuries in a number of cities throughout North America. However, most North American cities saw its streetcar lines removed in the midth century for a variety of financial, technological and social reasons.

Toronto currently operates the largest streetcar system in the Americas in terms of track length and ridership. Operated by the Toronto Transit Commission , the streetcar system is the only large-scale streetcar system existing in Canada, excluding heritage streetcar, or light rail systems that are operated in other Canadian municipalities.

The streetcar system was established in , and used a variety of vehicles in its history, including horse-drawn streetcars, Peter Witt streetcars , the PCC streetcar, and the Canadian Light Rail Vehicle and its articulated counterpart, the Articulated Light Rail Vehicle.

Since 29 December , [] the system exclusively uses the Flexity Outlook made by Bombardier Transportation. However, Canadian cities excluding Toronto, removed their streetcar systems in the midth century. In the late s and early s, light rail systems were introduced in Calgary and Edmonton; with another light rail system established in Ottawa in There is now something of a renaissance for light railways in mid-sized cities with Waterloo, Ontario the first to come on line and construction underway in Mississauga, Ontario.

In the late 20th century, several Canadian locales restored portions of their defunct streetcar lines, operating them as a heritage feature for tourists.

Pittsburgh had kept most of its streetcar system serving the city and many suburbs, making it the longest-lasting large-network streetcar system in the United States. In the late 20th century, several cities installed modern light rail systems, in part along the same corridors as their old streetcars systems, the first of these being the San Diego Trolley in San Diego in In the s, some cities in the United States brought back streetcars lines, including Memphis , Tampa , and Little Rock ; However, these streetcar systems were designed as heritage streetcar lines, and used vintage or replica-vintage vehicles.

The first "second-generation streetcar systems" in North America was opened in Portland in They are typically powered and will accept plastic figures inside.

Common manufacturers are Roco and Lima , with many custom models being made as well. Bowser Manufacturing has produced white metal models for over 50 years. Many of these run on O scale trams are also very popular among tram modellers because the increased size allows for more detail and easier crafting of overhead wiring.

In the US these models are usually purchased in epoxy or wood kits and some as brass models. The Saint Petersburg Tram Company [] produces highly detailed polyurethane non-powered O Scale models from around the world which can easily be powered by trucks from vendors like Q-Car.

It is thought that the first example of a working model tramcar in the UK built by an amateur for fun was in , when Frank E. The English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram , [] referring respectively to a type of truck goods wagon or freight railroad car used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran.

The word tram probably derived from Middle Flemish trame "beam, handle of a barrow, bar, rung". The identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is also used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were initially made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and, later, steel.

Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; North Americans prefer streetcar , trolley , or trolleycar. The term streetcar is first recorded in , and originally referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or later, trolleys. A widely held belief holds the word to derive from the troller said to derive from the words traveler and roller , a four-wheeled device that was dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires ; [] this portmanteau derivation is, however, most likely folk etymology.

The alternative North American term 'trolley' may strictly speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can also be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US tourist trolley.

Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires generally used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations.

The term may also apply to an aerial ropeway, e. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was later associated with the trolleybus , a rubber-tired vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires. These electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are also called trackless trolleys particularly in the northeastern US , or sometimes simply trolleys in the UK, as well as the Pacific Northwest , including Seattle , and Vancouver.

The New South Wales government in Australia has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams. Nathan was a passenger by No.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Streetcar. This article is about public transport vehicles running on rails. For other uses of "tram", see Tram disambiguation. For other uses, see Streetcar disambiguation. Street-running light railcar. Main article: History of trams. Main article: Horsecar. See also: Tram engine and Steam dummy. Main article: Cable car railway.

Main article: List of tram systems by gauge and electrification. Main article: Convict tramway. Main article: Types of trams. Main articles: Railway electrification system and Current collector.

Main article: Ground-level power supply. Main article: Tramway track. Main article: Tram stop. Tram stops can range from purpose-built, tram-exclusive facilities left , to simple stops within a public road right. Main articles: Tram and light rail transit systems , List of tram and light rail transit systems , and List of town tramway systems. Countries with tram networks. Countries without tram networks.

Main article: List of largest town tramway systems. Melbourne km; mi [91] Saint Petersburg Dallas Light Rail , [] modern streetcar [] and heritage streetcar [] km; 96 mi Sofia Louis Metropolitan Area 74 km; 46 mi Lviv This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

January Main article: List of town tramway systems in Africa. Main article: Trams in Asia. See also: Trams in China. Main article: Trams in Europe. Main article: Streetcars in North America. Further information: List of tram accidents. Further information: Trams in popular culture.

See also: Rail transport modelling. Transport portal Trains portal. List of town tramway systems List of tram and light rail transit systems List of tram builders List of tram systems by gauge and electrification List of transport museums Tram and light rail transit systems.

The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 19 February Archived from the original on 9 April Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 26 June Retrieved 8 March Retrieved 25 February Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 21 January Retrieved 23 December Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 2 January Archived from the original on 24 February Retrieved 10 February The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal.

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